Published date: 7 October 2019

General

Civil Aviation Authority advisory circulars contain guidance and information about standards, practices, and procedures that the Director has found to be an acceptable means of compliance with the associated rules and legislation.

However the information in the advisory circular does not replace the requirement for participants to comply with their own obligations under the Civil Aviation Rules, the Civil Aviation Act 1990 and other legislation.

An advisory circular reflects the Director’s view on the rules and legislation. It expresses CAA policy on the relevant matter. It is not intended to be definitive. Consideration will be given to other methods of compliance that may be presented to the Director. When new standards, practices, or procedures are found to be acceptable they will be added to the appropriate advisory circular. Should there be any inconsistency between this information and the rules or legislation, the rules and legislation take precedence.

An advisory circular may also include guidance material generally, including guidance on best practice as well as guidance to facilitate compliance with the rule requirements. However, guidance material must not be regarded as an acceptable means of compliance.

An advisory circular may also include technical information that is relevant to the standards or requirements.

Purpose

This advisory circular provides information on the flight time experience and on the examination syllabus content that is acceptable to the Director for meeting the Civil Aviation Rule requirements for the issue of an airline transport pilot licence.

Related Rules

This advisory circular relates to Civil Aviation Rule Part 61 Subpart F—Airline Transport Pilot Licences.

Change Notice

Revision 22 introduces a revised and updated knowledge for the subjects Flight Navigation General, Flight Planning, Instruments and Navigation Aids and Advanced Aerodynamics, Performance, and Systems Knowledge.

Cancellation Notice

This advisory circular cancels AC61-7 Revision 21 dated 30 August 2019.

Version History

This version history log contains a record of revision(s) made to this advisory circular.

AC Revision No.

Effective Date

Summary of Changes

AC61-7

6 October 1998

This advisory circular forms part of a series, which together replace AC61-1, AC61-2 and AC61-1A.

AC61-7 Rev.1

20 July 2000

Revision 1 separately identified the examinations and their associated syllabi that were acceptable to the Director for the grant of an airline transport licence (aeroplane), ATPL (A), or an airline transport licence (helicopter), ATPL (H).

AC61-7 Rev.2

1 March 2002

Revision 2 amalgamated the previous separate CASA and ASL examination packages that were listed in tables 2 and 3 of Appendix II as being acceptable to the Director for the issue of an airline transport pilot licence (Helicopter) [ATPL (H)] into the one composite list of examinations in a new table 2. The amalgamation of the CASA and ASL examinations into the one table provided greater flexibility for candidates to present credits in CASA examinations in combination with ASL examinations for those subjects that were not covered by ASL examinations.

AC61-7 Rev.3

12 January 2004

Revision 3 introduced format changes to the knowledge syllabus for Meteorology with the content of each subject given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number.

AC61-7 Rev.4

23 June 2004

Revision 4 introduced format changes to the syllabus for Air Law with the content of each subject given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number.

AC61-1.7 Rev.5

15 February 2005

Revision 5 introduced changes to the syllabus for Advanced Aerodynamics, Performance, and Systems Knowledge (Aeroplane).

AC61.1-7 Rev.6

6 July 2005

Revision 6 amends Appendix II – ATPL Written Examinations Table 2 where reference to the Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia is replaced with Aviation Services Limited (ASL) as the examination authority.

 

AC61.1-7 Rev.7

22 December 2005

Revision 7 introduced format changes to the syllabus for Human Factors. Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number.

AC61.1-8 Rev.8

11 May 2006

Revision 8 addressed airline transport pilot licence eligibility requirements in regard to written examinations and flight tests in accordance with the reissue of Part 61.

AC61-7 Rev.9

9 May 2007

Revision 9 re-numbered this advisory circular from AC61-1.7 to AC61-7 as part of a project to standardise the numbering of all advisory circulars.

AC61-7 Rev.10

29 June 2009

Revision 10:

·         inserted a new Subject 37-Air Law (Helicopter)

·         revised Subjects 38 Flight Navigation General (Aeroplane & Helicopter), 41-Flight Planning (Helicopter), 44-Instruments and Navigation Aids (Aeroplane) , 48 Advanced Aerodynamics Performance and Systems Knowledge (Aeroplane), 50-Aerodynamics and Aircraft Systems (Helicopter), and 51-Performance and Loading (Helicopter)

·         inserted a Flight Navigation Subject Matrix and Aircraft Technical Knowledge (Aeroplane) Syllabus Matrix

·         inserted minor corrections to Subject 36-Air Law (Aeroplane).

AC61-7 Rev.11

5 October 2009

Revision 11 introduced Subject 40-Flight Planning (Aeroplane) in the objective performance verb format.

AC61-7 Rev.12

14 June 2010

Revision 12:

·         introduced a revised Subject 36-ATPL Air Law (Aeroplane) and a revised Subject 37-ATPL Air Law (Helicopter)

·         inserted an Air Law Syllabus Matrix.

AC61-7 Rev.13

14 February 2011

Revision 13:

·         introduced a revised Meteorology syllabus and Meteorology syllabus matrix in Appendix III

·         replaced the term ‘ETOPS’ with the term ‘EDTO’ –extended diversion time operations –to reflect the Part 121 EDTO rule amendment effective 1 November 2010.

AC61-7 Rev.14

21 June 2011

Revision 14 inserted an approved examination equivalent for RNZAF pilots seeking an ATPL.

AC61-7 Rev.15

1 January 2015

Revision 15 inserted a revised Subject 40 ATPL Flight Planning (Aeroplane) syllabus.

AC61-7 Rev.16

31 March 2014

Revision 16 expanded on approved equivalents for written exams and separated ATPL (H) flight test syllabus requirements into a new Appendix V.

AC61-7 Rev.17

29 June 2015

Revision 17 reviewed ‘Subject No. 48 Advanced Aerodynamics, Performance, and Systems Knowledge (Aeroplane)’; and removed the ‘Aircraft Technical Knowledge (Aeroplane) Syllabus Matrix’.

AC61-7 Rev.18

7 July 2015

Revision 18 reviewed ‘Subject 46 Human Factors’ under ‘Appendix III - ATPL Written Examination Syllabuses’.

AC61-7 Rev.19

31 October 2016

Revision 19 introduced a ‘representative’ aircraft into Subject 44 Instruments and Navigation Aids (Aeroplane)’ under ‘Appendix III - ATPL Written Examination Syllabuses’.

AC61-7 Rev.19.1

4 November 2016

Revision 19.1 made editorial changes to this advisory circular.

AC61-7 Rev.20

24 November 2017

Revision 20 introduced a revised and updated knowledge syllabus for the subject of Meteorology.

AC61-7 Rev.21

30 August 2019

Revision 21 provides revised experience requirements for the issue of an ATPL (A) and additional detail on specific flight experience that may be credited toward ATPL issue.

Changes to the advisory circular are as follows:

·         change notice is updated

·         cancellation notice is inserted

·         history log is inserted

·         the numbering system is revised

·         sections 2.1.1 and 2.1.3 are amended

AC61-7 Rev.22

07 October 2019

Revision 22 introduces a revised and updated knowledge for the subjects Flight Navigation General, Flight Planning, Instruments and Navigation Aids and Advanced Aerodynamics, Performance, and Systems Knowledge.

1. Rule 61.253       Eligibility Requirements

1.1         Current Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL) Required

1.1.1      Rule 61.253(a)(2) requires an applicant for an airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) to hold an appropriate current CPL. This includes the requirement to hold a current Class 1 medical certificate.

1.2         Flight Time Experience

1.2.1      Rule 61.253(a)(4).The flight time experience that is acceptable to the Director is set out in Appendix I of this advisory circular.

1.3         Written Examination Credit

1.3.1      Rule 61.253(a)(5) requires an applicant for an ATPL to have a written examination credit, or approved equivalents, in air law, flight navigation general, flight planning, meteorology, instruments and navigation aids, human factors, and advanced aerodynamics, performance, and systems knowledge, (A) or (H) as appropriate. Credits in the applicable examinations listed in Table 1, or 2 in Appendix II of this advisory circular will meet these requirements. Appendix III of this advisory circular details the syllabuses that are applicable to these examinations.

1.3.2      An examination knowledge deficiency report (KDR) is a report issued on completion of a written examination that details areas where questions were answered incorrectly. The applicant for an airline transport pilot licence flight test must provide the flight examiner with written examination KDRs in accordance with rule 61.21(a)(5). These KDRs, with content acknowledged against the relevant rule reference(s), must be certified prior to the flight test by a Category A or B flight instructor that the applicant has been examined in these areas and their knowledge has improved. The flight examiner conducting the flight test will test the applicant’s knowledge of the written examination subject areas including but not limited to items included in the KDRs.

1.3.3      The written examination credit comes into effect when all the written examinations have been passed in the qualifying period of 3 years, and the written examination credit is valid for 10 years from the date of issue, except for aviation law where the examination pass must not be more than 5 years old as detailed in rule 61.17(c) and (d).

1.4         Approved Equivalent

1.4.1      Examination pass results gained by an RNZAF pilot, together with the command flight time experience gained on the C130, P3, B757 or flight time experience plus Category A or B QFI qualification for the Beech Kingair will be accepted as approved equivalents to the written examinations required by rule 61.253(a)(5), for the issue of an ATPL except for the required air law written examination. All RNZAF pilots applying for the issue of an ATPL(A) are required to pass a New Zealand ATPL(A) air law written examination.

1.4.2      Examination pass results gained by an NZDF helicopter pilot together with the command flight time experience gained on the Kaman Seasprite, Bell UH-1, Agusta A-109 or NH-90 will be accepted as approved equivalents to the written examinations required by rule 61.253(a)(5), for the issue of an ATPL except for the required air law written examination. All NZDF pilots applying for the issue of an ATPL(H) are required to pass a New Zealand ATPL(H) air law written examination.

1.4.3      A person holding an ATPL (H) issued under Part 61 who wishes to gain an ATPL (A), is required to gain passes in the written examination subjects ATPL Law (Aeroplane), ATPL Flight Planning (Aeroplane), ATPL Instruments and Navigational Aids (Aeroplane), ATPL Advanced Aerodynamics, performance and systems knowledge.

1.4.4      The holders ATPL (H) together with passes in the above ATPL (A) examination subjects are an approved equivalent to the written examinations required for an ATPL (A).

NOTE: Persons seeking an ATPL (H) are required to hold an Instrument Rating (Helicopter). Persons seeking an ATPL (A) are required to hold an Instrument Rating (Aeroplane).

1.5         Flight Tests

1.5.1      Rule 61.253(a)(6) requires an applicant for a ATPL to demonstrate competence and knowledge to the Director in a flight test in the appropriate category of aircraft. The competencies and knowledge to be tested are set out in the ATPL Flight Test Standards Guide, published by the Director. These are detailed in Appendices IV and V of this advisory circular. The flight tests are conducted by appropriately authorised flight examiners on behalf of the Director.

1.5.2      The privileges and limitations mentioned in rule 61.253(a)(6)(ii) are those detailed in rule 61.255.

1.6         Foreign ATPL

1.6.1      A current ATPL issued by an ICAO Contracting State may be accepted as the basis for meeting the eligibility requirements under rule 61.253 for the issue of a New Zealand ATPL.

1.6.2      For this to occur the following applies.

  • (a) The foreign pilot licence holder must meet flight experience equivalent to that required under rule 61.253(a)(4) as detailed in Appendix I of this advisory circular. Normally a current foreign ATPL meets this requirement.
  • (b) A current foreign ATPL will normally be accepted as meeting all written examination passes for rule 61.253(a)(5) (except for air law), if the applicant also produces evidence of having completed at least 500 hours as pilot-in-command or 1000 hours as co-pilot. This flight time must have been attained in countries under the jurisdiction of the foreign authority that issued the ATPL.
  • in multi-engine, multi-crew aircraft
  • on commercial IFR multi-crew operations
  • after the issue of the respective foreign ATPL that has been presented for this purpose.

NOTE: A foreign ATPL holder who does not meet the post licence issue requirements as detailed is required to gain credits for all written examinations in accordance with rule 61.253(a)(5).

  • (c) All foreign ATPL holders are required to pass New Zealand ATPL Law and a New Zealand ATPL issue flight test in accordance with rule 61.253(a)(6).

NOTE: Further detailed information relating to this process is available on the CAA website aviation.govt.nz(external link).

2. Appendix I—ATPL Flight Time Experience Requirements

2.1         Aeroplane

2.1.1      Total flight time experience

  • (a) At least 1500 hours in aeroplanes which may be made up of:
  • All dual flight instruction in aeroplanes (single or multi-engine, both day and night)
  • All pilot in command flight experience in aeroplanes (single or multi engine, both day and night)
  • All command practice flight experience that complies with rule 61.31(b). All six aspects of command practice under supervision must be complied with and logbook and training records (available to the CAA examiner/assessor) maintained by the operator. Any command practice time logged that does not comply fully with these requirements cannot be credited toward any experience requirement.
  • Fifty percent of all co-pilot (first officer) flight experience in aeroplanes that are required, by the aircraft’s flight manual to be operated with a co-pilot, may be credited towards this total flight time requirement for an airline transport pilot licence.
  • A pilot may not credit flight time toward an airline transport pilot licence recorded as pilot-in-command under supervision (PIC/US). This is a specific requirement of Part 135 operations (rule 135.505) for the purpose of consolidating operating experience on type.
  • Nor can a pilot who is designated as pilot-in-command for the purpose of rule 135.505(b)(3) to supervise a pilot undergoing consolidation of operating experience, be credited with the flight time towards the experience requirements for an airline transport pilot licence if the supervision is carried out in a single-pilot aircraft.
  • New Zealand does not recognise second officer or cruise relief flight experience toward a higher licence or rating.

2.1.2      Cross-crediting

  • (a) Where an applicant produces logbook evidence of piloting experience in aircraft other than in aeroplanes, half the pilot-in-command time experienced within the immediately preceding 12 months, up to the maximums that follow, may be credited towards the 1500 total flight experience required, but not to the specific flight experiences.
  • For helicopters: 60 hours.
  • For gliders and powered gliders: 25 hours.
  • For the above combined: 60 hours.

2.1.3      Specific flight experience requirements

  • (a) Pilot-in-command:
  • 250 hours in aeroplanes as pilot-in-command including 100 hours of cross-country navigation of which 25 hours is to have been at night.
  • (b) Alternatively
  • 250 hours in aeroplanes consisting of 70 hours minimum as pilot-in-command and 50% of any command practice flight time [that meets all six conditions of rule 61.31(b)]
  • 100 hours of pilot in command cross-country navigation of which 25 hours is to have been cross-country navigation at night. In order to meet this requirement:
    • 200 hours cross-country navigation as co-pilot (first officer) in an aeroplane that is required, by its aircraft flight manual to be operated with a co-pilot, would meet the 100 hours pilot in command cross-country navigation requirement. This flight time may form part of the 250 hours mentioned in paragraph 2.1.3(b)(1).
    • 50 hours of night cross-country navigation time logged as command practice [in accordance with all the conditions of rule 61.31(b)] would meet the 25 hours pilot in command night cross-country navigation requirement. This flight time may form part of the 250 hours mentioned in paragraph 2.1.3(b)(1).
  • (c) Night flight:
  • 100 hours in aeroplanes as pilot-in-command (single and/or multi-engine) or 100 hours as co-pilot in an aeroplane required by its aircraft flight manual to be operated with a co-pilot.
  • (d) Instrument time:
  • 75 hours total (which may include approved simulators) which includes at least 50 hours instrument flight time in aeroplanes and an instrument rating (aeroplane).

2.2         Helicopter

2.2.1      Total flight time experience

  • (a) At least 1000 hours in helicopters with appropriate cross-crediting of experience as detailed below. This flight time experience is to include at least the minimum flight time requirements that follow.
  • Pilot-in-command:
    • 250 hours in helicopters as pilot-in-command, or
    • 250 hours in helicopters consisting of 100 hours or more as pilot-in-command and additional command practice flight time as required.

NOTE: Command practice is time gained in accordance with rule 61.31(b). No more than 50 percent of the total command practice flight time may be used for paragraph (ii) mentioned above

  • Cross-country navigation:
    • 200 hours in helicopters, or
    • 200 hours in helicopters consisting of 100 hours or more as pilot-in-command and additional command practice flight time as required.
  • Instrument time:
    • An instrument rating (helicopter).
  • Night flying:
    • 50 hours in helicopters.

2.2.2      Cross-crediting:

  • (a) Where an applicant produces acceptable evidence of piloting experience in aircraft other than in helicopters, half the pilot-in-command time experienced within the immediately preceding 12 months up to the maximums that follow, may be credited towards the total flight experience required, but not to the specific experiences:
  • For aeroplanes: 60 hours.
  • For gliders and powered gliders: 25 hours.
  • For the above combined: 60 hours.

3. Appendix II—ATPL Written Examinations

ATPL (A) Examinations

The examinations that are approved for meeting the requirements of rule 61.253(a)(5) for the issue of an ATPL(A) are listed in Table 1.

Table 1

Examination Authority

ATPL subject titles

Aspeq

Air Law(Aeroplane)

Aspeq

Flight Navigation – General

Aspeq

Flight Planning

Aspeq

Meteorology

Aspeq

Instruments and Navigational Aids

Aspeq

Human Factors

Aspeq

Advanced Aerodynamics, Performance and Systems Knowledge

ATPL (H) Examinations

The examinations that are approved for meeting the requirements of rule 61.253(a)(5) for the issue of an ATPL(H) are listed in Table 2.

Table 2

Examination Authority

ATPL subject titles

Aspeq

Aerodynamics and Aircraft Systems (Helicopter)

Aspeq

Flight Planning (Helicopter)

Aspeq

Performance and Loading (Helicopter)

Aspeq

Navigation

Aspeq

Meteorology

Aspeq

Human Factors

Aspeq

Air Law (Helicopter)

4. Appendix III—ATPL Written Examination Syllabuses

(NOTE: where syllabuses refer to a ‘representative’ aircraft, study guides can be obtained from the ‘candidate information’ section at http://caanz.aspeqexams.com/(external link).)

Air Law Syllabus Matrix

Sub-Heading

PPL

CPL

IR

ATPL(A)

ATPL(H)

 

Subject # 4

Subject # 16

Subject # 52

Subject # 36

Subject # 37

General

 

 

 

 

 

Aviation Legislation

4.2

16.2

52.2

36.2

37.2

Definitions

4.4

16.4

52.4

36.4

37.4

Abbreviations

4.6

16.6

52.6

36.6

37.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personnel Licensing

 

 

 

 

 

Requirements for Licences and Ratings

4.10

16.10

52.10

36.10

37.10

Eligibility, Privileges and Limitations

4.12

16.12

52.12

36.12

37.12

Competency, Currency and Recency

4.14

16.14

52.14

36.14

37.14

Medical Requirements

4.16

16.16

52.16

36.16

37.16

 

 

 

 

 

 

Airworthiness of Aircraft and Aircraft Equipment

 

 

 

 

 

Documentation

4.20

16.20

52.20

36.20

37.20

Aircraft Maintenance

4.22

16.22

52.22

36.22

37.22

Instruments and Avionics

4.24

16.24

52.24

36.24

37.24

Equipment

4.26

16.26

52.26

36.26

37.26

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Operating and Flight Rules

 

 

 

 

 

General Operating Requirements

4.30

16.30

52.30

36.30

37.30

General Operating Restrictions

4.32

16.32

52.32

36.32

37.32

General Meteorological Requirements and Restrictions

4.34

16.34

 

 

37.34

Carriage of Dangerous Goods

4.36

16.36

 

36.36

37.36

Helicopter External Load Operations

 

16.38

 

 

37.38

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Operations

 

 

 

 

 

Air Operations Crew Requirements

 

16.40

 

36.40

37.40

Air Operations Requirements and Restrictions

 

16.42

 

36.42

37.42

Air Operations Meteorological Requirements and Restrictions

 

16.44

 

36.44

37.44

Air Operations Performance Requirements

 

16.46

 

36.46

37.46

Air Operations Weight and Balance Requirements

 

 

 

 

37.48

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flight Planning and Preparation

 

 

 

 

 

Flight Preparation

4.50

16.50

52.50

36.50

37.50

Alternate Requirements

 

 

52.52

36.52

37.52

Fuel Requirements

4.54

16.54

52.54

36.54

37.54

Flight Plans

4.56

16.56

52.56

36.56

37.56

En-route Limitations

 

16.58

 

36.58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air Traffic Services

 

 

 

 

 

Communications

4.60

16.60

52.60

36.60

37.60

Clearances

4.62

16.62

52.62

36.62

37.62

Separation

4.63

16.63

52.63

36.63

37.63

Terrain Clearance

 

 

52.64

36.64

37.64

Weather Avoidance

 

 

52.65

36.65

37.65

Radar Services

4.66

16.66

52.66

36.66

37.66

Oceanic Procedures

 

 

 

36.67

 

Global Navigation Satellite System

 

16.68

52.68

36.68

37.68

Airspace; Aerodromes; and Heliports

 

 

 

 

 

Altimetry

4.70

16.70

52.70

36.70

37.70

Cruising Levels

4.72

16.72

52.72

36.72

37.72

Transponders

4.74

16.74

52.74

36.74

37.74

Airspace

4.75

16.75

52.75

36.75

37.75

Aerodromes and Heliports

4.76

16.76

52.76

36.76

37.76

Aerodrome Lighting

4.78

16.78

52.78

36.78

37.78

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emergencies; Incidents; and Accidents

 

 

 

 

 

Responsibilities of Operators and Pilots

4.80

16.80

 

36.80

37.80

Communications and Equipment

4.82

16.82

52.82

36.82

37.82

 

 

 

 

 

 

Instrument Departures and Approaches

 

 

 

 

 

Departure Procedures

 

 

52.90

36.90

37.90

Holding Procedures

 

 

52.92

36.92

37.92

Approach Procedures

 

 

52.94

36.94

37.94

Communications and Navigation Aid Failure

 

 

52.96

36.96

37.96

Subject No. 36        ATPL Air Law (Aeroplane)

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate. These topic reference numbers may be common across the subject levels and therefore may not be consecutive within a specific syllabus.

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

General

36.2

Aviation Legislation

36.2.2

Describe the requirements to hold an aviation document, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S7.

36.2.4

Describe the criteria for the fit and proper person test, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S10.

36.2.6

Describe the duties of the pilot-in-command, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S13 and 13A.

36.2.8

Describe the responsibilities of a licence holder with respect to changes in their medical condition, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S27.

36.2.10

Describe the responsibilities of a licence holder with respect to the surrender of a medical certificate as laid down in CA Act 1990 S27.

36.2.12

Describe the responsibilities of a licence holder with respect to safety offences, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S43 and S44.

36.4

Definitions

 

CAR Part 1 (unless otherwise noted)

State the definition of:

          (a)      accelerate-stop distance available

          (b)      accident

          (c)      Act

          (d)      adequate aerodrome

          (e)      aerodrome control service

           (f)      aerodrome operational area

          (g)      aeronautical information circular

          (h)      aircraft category

           (i)      air transport operation

           (j)      air operation

          (k)      airworthiness certificate

           (l)      airworthiness directive

        (m)      airworthy condition

          (n)      alerting service

          (o)      alternate aerodrome

          (p)      altitude

          (q)      approach control

           (r)      area control

          (s)      area navigation

           (t)      ATC clearance

          (u)      ATC instruction

          (v)      augmented crew

        (w)      Category II precision approach procedure

          (x)      Category III precision approach procedure

          (y)      ceiling

          (z)      certificated organisation

       (aa)      Class 3.1A Flammable liquid

      (bb)      Class 3.1C Flammable liquid

       (cc)      Class 3.1D Flammable liquid

      (dd)      Class B cargo or baggage compartment

       (ee)      clearance limit

        (ff)      clearway

      (gg)      command practice

      (hh)      commercial transport operation

         (ii)      contaminated

         (jj)      controlled airspace

      (kk)      controlled flight

         (ll)      co-pilot

  (mm)      crew member

      (nn)      barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV) (AIP GEN)

      (oo)      dangerous goods

      (pp)      day

      (qq)      decision altitude (DA)

        (rr)      decision height (DH)

        (ss)      design aeroplane (AIP GEN)

         (tt)      disabled passenger

      (uu)      dual flight time

      (vv)      escorted passenger

   (ww)      extended diversion time operations

      (xx)      final reserve fuel

      (yy)      fit and proper person

       (zz)      flight attendant

    (aaa)      flight crew member

  (bbb)      flight examiner

    (ccc)      flight level

  (ddd)      flight manual

    (eee)      flight plan

      (fff)      flight time

  (ggg)      height

  (hhh)      IFR flight

       (iii)      incident

       (jjj)      instrument approach procedure

  (kkk)      instrument flight

       (lll)      instrument flight time

(mmm)      instrument meteorological conditions

  (nnn)      instrument time

  (ooo)      landing distance available

  (ppp)      Mach number

  (qqq)      minimum descent altitude (MDA)

      (rrr)      minimum descent height (MDH)

     (sss)      minimum safe altitude (AIP GEN)

       (ttt)      minimum sector altitude (MSA 25M) (AIP GEN)

  (uuu)      night

  (vvv)      NOTAM

(www)      passenger

  (xxx)      pilot-in-command

  (yyy)      precision approach procedure

    (zzz)      pressure altitude

(aaaa)      procedure altitude (AIP GEN)

(bbbb)      rated coverage (AIP GEN)

(cccc)      rating

(dddd)      regular air transport passenger service

(eeee)      reporting point

    (ffff)      RNP performance

(gggg)      runway end safety area (AIP GEN)

(hhhh)      runway visual range

     (iiii)      SARTIME

     (jjjj)      serious incident

(kkkk)      segment OCA (AIP GEN)

     (llll)      SEIFR passenger operation

(mmmm)      take-off distance available

(nnnn)      take-off run available

(oooo)      take-off weight

(pppp)      Technical Instructions

(qqqq)      threshold (CAR 121.3)

    (rrrr)      transition altitude (AIP GEN)

  (ssss)      transition layer (AIP GEN)

     (tttt)      transition level (AIP GEN)

(uuuu)      turbofan

(vvvv)      turbojet

(wwww)      turboprop

(xxxx)      type

(yyyy)      unlawful interference

(zzzz)      VFR flight

(aaaaa)      visibility

(bbbbb)      visual meteorological conditions

(ccccc)      ZFT simulator.

36.6

Abbreviations

 

CAR Part 1 (unless otherwise noted)

State the meaning of the following abbreviations:

          (a)      ACARS (AIP GEN)

          (b)      ACAS

          (c)      AD

          (d)      ADF

          (e)      AEDRS

           (f)      AGL

          (g)      AMSL

          (h)      ATIS

           (i)      CAR

           (j)      CPDLC (AIP GEN)

          (k)      CRM

           (l)      DME

        (m)      EDTO

          (n)      ELT

          (o)      GPWS

          (p)      ICAO

          (q)      IFSD

           (r)      ILS

          (s)      MNPS

           (t)      QFE

          (u)      QNH

          (v)      RESA

        (w)      RNP

          (x)      RVR

          (y)      RVSM

          (z)      SARPS (AIP GEN)

       (aa)      SATCOM (AIP GEN)

      (bb)      SEIFR

       (cc)      SELCAL

      (dd)      TAWS

       (ee)      TCAS

        (ff)      VOR

      (gg)      ZFT.

 

Personnel Licensing

36.10

Requirements for Licences and Ratings

36.10.2

State the requirements for holding a pilot licence. CAR 61

36.10.4

State the requirements for a pilot-in-command to hold a type rating on the type of aircraft being flown. CAR 61

36.10.6

State the requirements for entering flight details into a pilot logbook. CAR 61

36.12

Eligibility, Privileges and Limitations

36.12.2

Describe the allowance for a person who does not hold a current pilot licence to fly dual with a flying instructor. CAR 61

36.12.4

State the solo flight requirements on a person who does not hold a current pilot licence. CAR 61

36.12.6

State the limitations on a person who does not hold a current pilot licence. CAR 61

36.12.8

State the eligibility requirements for the issue of an airline transport pilot licence. CAR 61

36.12.10

State the privileges of holding an airline transport pilot licence. CAR 61

 

36.14

Competency, Currency and Recency

36.14.2

State the recent experience requirements of a pilot-in-command on an air operation, who is the holder of an airline transport pilot licence. CAR 61

36.14.4

State the requirements for the completion of a biennial flight review. CAR 61

36.14.6

Explain the use of a lower licence or rating. CAR 61

36.14.8

State the period within which a pilot, acting as a flight crew member of an aircraft engaged on a CAR Part 121/125 air operation under IFR, must have passed a check of normal, abnormal and emergency procedures in the same aeroplane type.

36.14.10

State the period within which a pilot of an aircraft engaged on an air operation under CAR Part 121/125 must have completed a written or oral test of their knowledge in aeroplane systems, performance and operating procedures.

36.14.12

State the period within which a pilot-in-command of an aircraft engaged on an air operation under CAR Part 121/125 must have passed a check of route and aerodrome proficiency.

36.14.14

State the CAR Part 121/125 crew member grace provisions.

36.14.16

State the currency requirements of a pilot who is the holder of an instrument rating. CAR 61

36.14.18

State the currency requirements for carrying out an instrument approach. CAR 61

36.16

Medical Requirements

36.16.2

State the requirements for holding a medical certificate. CAR 61

36.16.4

State the requirements on a person applying for a medical certificate. CAR 67

36.16.6

State the requirements for maintaining medical fitness following the issue of a medical certificate. CA Act 1990 S27C

36.16.8

State the normal currency period of the Class 1 medical certificate for an ATPL holder who is under the age of 40. CAR 67

36.16.10

State the normal currency period of the Class 1 medical certificate for an ATPL holder who is 40 years of age or more on the date that the certificate is issued. CAR 67

 

Airworthiness of Aircraft and Aircraft Equipment

36.20

Documentation

36.20.2

State the documents which must be carried in aircraft operated in New Zealand. CAR 91

36.22

Aircraft Maintenance

36.22.2

Describe the maintenance requirements of an aircraft operator. CAR 91

36.22.4

State the requirements for maintenance records. CAR 91

36.22.6

State the requirements for the retention of maintenance records. CAR 91

36.22.8

State the requirements for and contents of a technical log. CAR 91

36.22.10

State the requirements for entering defects into a technical log. CAR 91

36.22.12

State the requirements for clearing defects from a technical log. CAR 91

36.22.14

State the limitations and requirements on a person undertaking ‘pilot maintenance’. CAR 43

36.22.16

State the requirements for conducting an operational flight check on an aircraft. CAR 91

36.22.18

State the requirements for acting as a test pilot. CAR 19

36.22.20

State the inspection period for radios. CAR 91

36.22.22

State the inspection period for altimeters. CAR 91

36.22.24

State the inspection period for transponders. CAR 91

36.22.26

State the inspection period for the ELT. CAR 91

36.24

Instruments and Avionics

36.24.2

State the CAR Part 121 requirements for a ground proximity warning system (GPWS).

36.24.4

State the CAR Part 121 requirements for a terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS).

36.24.6

State the CAR Part 121 requirements for an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II).

36.24.8

State the minimum instrument requirements for an IFR flight. CAR 91

36.24.10

State the communications and navigation equipment requirements for an IFR flight. CAR 91

36.24.12

State the equipment requirements of aircraft operating in airspace where RVSM is applied by ATC. CAR 91 and CAR 121

36.26

Equipment

36.26.2

State the equipment requirements for an IFR flight. CAR 91

36.26.4

State the CAR Part 91 requirements for emergency equipment.

36.26.6

State the CAR Part 121 requirements for night flight.

36.26.8

State the CAR Part 121 requirements for emergency equipment.

36.26.10

State the CAR Part 121 requirements for locating protective breathing equipment.

36.26.12

State the requirements for indicating the time in flight. CAR 91

36.26.14

Explain the requirement for altitude alerting/assigned altitude indicating. CAR 91

36.26.16

State the requirements for an ELT. CAR 91 and CAR 121

 

General Operating and Flight Rules

36.30

General Operating Requirements

36.30.2

Describe the requirements for passengers to comply with instructions and commands. CAR 91

36.30.4

Explain the requirements for maintaining daily flight records. CAR 91

36.30.6

Explain the requirements for the carriage of flight attendants. CAR 91

36.30.8

State the requirements for operating an aircraft in simulated instrument flight. CAR 91

36.30.10

State the requirements of a pilot-in-command with respect to the safe operation of an aircraft. CAR 91

36.30.12

Describe the authority of the pilot-in-command. CAR 91

36.30.14

State the requirements for crew occupation of seats and wearing safety belts. CAR 91

36.30.16

State the requirements for the occupation of seats and wearing of restraints. CAR 91

36.30.18

State the requirements for the use of oxygen equipment. CAR 91

36.30.20

State the requirements for briefing passengers prior to flight. CAR 91

36.30.22

State the requirements for familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment. CAR 91

36.30.24

State the requirements for carrying appropriate aeronautical publications and charts in flight. CAR 91

36.30.26

State the requirements for operating on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome. CAR 91

36.30.28

Describe the standard overhead joining procedure, and state when it should be used. AIP AD

36.30.30

State and describe the application of the right of way rules. CAR 91

36.30.32

Explain the requirement for aircraft lighting. CAR 91

36.30.34

State the requirements for the pilot of an aircraft, being flown for the purpose of demonstrating eligibility for the issue of an airworthiness certificate. CAR 91

36.30.36

State the requirements for wearing/holding identity documentation in certain areas. CAR 19

36.32

General Operating Restrictions

36.32.2

State the restrictions on smoking in an aircraft. CA Act 1990 S65N

36.32.4

State the restrictions associated with the abuse of drugs and alcohol. CAR 91 and CAR 19

36.32.6

State the restrictions when refuelling. CAR 121/125

36.32.8

State the restrictions on the use of portable electronic devices in flight. CAR 91

36.32.10

State the restrictions on the carriage and discharge of firearms on aircraft. CAR 91

36.32.12

Explain the restrictions on stowage of carry-on baggage. CAR 91

36.32.14

Explain the restrictions on the carriage of cargo. CAR 91

36.32.16

State the restrictions applicable to aircraft flying near other aircraft. CAR 91

36.32.18

State the restrictions on the dropping of objects from an aircraft in flight. CAR 91

36.32.20

State the speed limitation on aircraft operating under VFR. CAR 91

36.32.22

State the minimum heights for VFR flights under CAR Part 91.

36.32.24

State the restrictions when operating VFR in icing conditions. CAR 91

36.32.26

State the restrictions when operating IFR in icing conditions. CAR 91

36.32.28

State the restrictions on aircraft noise and engine emission standards. CAR 91

36.32.30

State the restrictions on aircraft sonic booms. CAR 91

36.36

Carriage of Dangerous Goods

36.36.2

Describe the limitation of CAR Part 92 with respect to members of the Police.

36.36.4

Describe the allowance for the carriage of dangerous good for the recreational use of passengers. CAR 92

36.36.6

State the restriction for the carriage of dangerous goods in an aircraft cabin occupied by passengers, or on the flight deck of an aircraft. CAR 92

36.36.8

State the requirements for the carriage of non-dangerous goods in an aircraft. CAR 92

36.36.10

State the requirement for the notification of the pilot-in-command when dangerous goods are carried. CAR 92

36.36.12

State the requirement for a dangerous goods training programme. CAR 92

36.36.14

State the dangerous goods recurrent training programme requirements. CAR 92

 

Air Operations

36.40

Air Operations Crew Requirements

36.40.2

State the CAR Part 121 crew qualification and experience requirements.

36.40.4

State the CAR Part 121 flight and duty time limitations on flight crew members.

36.40.6

State the AC119-2 normal minimum rest period required following any duty period.

36.40.8

State the maximum number of flight hours that a pilot may fly as crew in an aircraft which carries two pilots on an internal air operation. AC119-2

36.40.10

State the CAR Part 121 minimum number of flight attendants that must be carried on air operations.

36.40.12

State the CAR Part 125 crew qualification and experience requirements.

36.40.14

State the CAR Part 125 flight and duty time limitations on flight crew members.

36.42

Air Operations Requirements and Restrictions

36.42.2

State the airworthiness requirements for aircraft used on air operations. CAR 121/125

36.42.4

State the conditions under which an air operator may perform an air transport operation carrying passengers with a single-engine aeroplane under IFR. CAR 125

36.42.6

State the operating restrictions on single-engine air transport operations under IFR (SEIFR). CAR 125

36.42.8

State the restrictions on commercial transport operations carrying passengers with a single-engine aeroplane under IFR. CAR 125

36.42.10

State the CAR Part 121 restrictions on VFR night operations.

36.42.12

State the CAR Part 121 restriction on VFR extended over-water operations.

36.42.14

State the CAR Part 121/125 requirements for passenger safety and the carriage of certain passengers.

36.42.16

State the CAR Part 121/125 requirement for the keeping of an operation record.

36.42.18

State the CAR Part 121/125 requirement for a maintenance review.

36.42.20

State the CAR Part 121/125 restrictions when refuelling.

36.42.22

State the CAR Part 121/125 restrictions on the manipulation of an aircraft’s controls.

36.44

Air Operations Meteorological Requirements and Restrictions

36.44.2

State the CAR Part 121/125 meteorological requirements for commencing an air operation under IFR.

36.44.4

State the CAR Part 121 meteorological requirements for commencing an air operation under IFR to a destination outside New Zealand.

36.44.6

State the CAR Part 121 requirements and limitations for reduced take-off minima.

36.44.8

State the meteorological operating restrictions on an aeroplane performing a VFR air operation under CAR Part 121/125.

36.44.10

State the meteorological operating restrictions on a multi-engine aeroplane performing a VFR air operation under CAR Part 121.

36.46

Air Operations Performance Requirements

36.46.2

State the CAR Part 121/125 performance requirements for take-off distances.

36.46.4

State the CAR Part 121/125 performance requirements for clearing obstacles within the net take-off flight path.

36.46.6

State the CAR Part 121 turbo jet powered aeroplane performance requirements for landing distance.

36.46.8

State the CAR Part 121/125 turboprop powered aeroplane performance requirements for landing distance.

36.46.10

State the CAR Part 121/125 performance requirements for landing on wet and contaminated runways.

 

Flight Planning and Preparation

36.50

Flight Preparation

36.50.2

Explain the requirements for obtaining and considering relevant information prior to flight. CAR 91

36.50.4

Describe the publications and their content that provide operational route and aerodrome information.

36.50.6

Derive operational information from charts and publications that provide route, approach and aerodrome information.

36.52

Alternate Requirements

36.52.2

State the meteorological minima at destination which would require an alternate to be nominated. CAR 91

36.52.4

State the alternate requirements for a CAR Part 121 IFR flight, if meteorological conditions at the estimated time of arrival at the destination aerodrome, are below the minimum prescribed for the instrument approach procedure likely to be used.

36.52.6

State the meteorological minima at departure which would require a CAR Part 121/125 IFR operation to nominate a departure alternate. CAR 121/125

36.52.8

Determine the meteorological minima required at an aerodrome for it to be nominated as an IFR alternate. CAR 91

36.52.10

State the power supply requirements for the selection of an aerodrome as an alternate on an IFR air operation. CAR 91

36.52.12

State the reference datum for take-off meteorological minima for IFR operations. CAR 91

36.52.14

State the reference datum for landing meteorological minima for IFR operations. CAR 91

36.52.16

State the reference datum for alternate meteorological minima for IFR operations. AIP ENR

36.54

Fuel Requirements

36.54.2

State the fuel reserve required for an IFR flight in a non-turbine-powered aeroplane. CAR 91

36.54.4

State the fuel reserve required for an IFR flight in a turbine-powered aeroplane. CAR 91

36.56

Flight Plans

36.56.2

State the CAR Part 121/125 requirements for the filing of a flight plan.

36.56.4

State the notification lead time for filing an IFR flight plan. CAR 91

36.56.6

State the requirements for adhering to an IFR flight plan. CAR 91

36.56.8

State the requirements for the notification of changes to a filed IFR flight plan. CAR 91

36.56.10

State the requirements for an inadvertent departure from an IFR flight plan. CAR 91

36.56.12

State the requirements for the terminating an IFR flight plan at an aerodrome without ATS. CAR 91

36.58

En-route Limitations

36.58.2

State the minimum heights for VFR flights under CAR Part 121.

36.58.4

State the en-route limitations for two engine aeroplanes with respect to flying time from an adequate aerodrome. CAR 121

 

Air Traffic Services

36.60

Communications

36.60.2

Derive from operational publications, the required radio frequency for communicating with specified ATC units.

36.60.4

Explain the use of aircraft radiotelephony callsigns. CAR 91

36.60.6

State the requirements for making position reports to an ATS unit. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.60.8

State the contents of various IFR position reports. AIP ENR

36.60.10

State the meaning of the various light signals from a control tower. CAR 91 & AIP AD

36.60.12

State the communications requirements when TIBA procedures are in force. AIP ENR

36.62

Clearances

36.62.2

State the requirements for complying with ATC clearances and instructions. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.62.4

State the requirements for coordinating with an aerodrome flight information service. CAR 91

36.62.6

State the requirements for receiving an ATC clearance prior to entering various types of airspace, and ground manoeuvring area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.63

Separation

36.63.2

Describe the situations where Air Traffic Control is responsible for the provision of separation between VFR, SVFR and IFR traffic. AIP ENR

36.63.4

Describe the situations where the pilot-in-command of an IFR flight is responsible for maintaining separation from other traffic. AIP ENR

36.63.6

Describe the normal separation standards applied by ATC. AIP ENR

36.63.8

Describe the situations where the normal separation may be reduced. AIP ENR

36.63.10

State the meaning of the term “Essential traffic”. AIP ENR

36.63.12

State the conditions under which longitudinal separation between reciprocal track aircraft may be reduced. AIP ENR

36.63.14

State the minimum lateral and longitudinal separation between RNP10 aircraft, as permitted by ICAO Regional Supplementary procedures (Doc 7030). AIP ENR

36.63.16

State the deviation from an assigned indicated airspeed or Mach number and ETA outside of which pilots are required to notify ATC. CAR 91

36.63.18

State the wake turbulence separation requirements for medium and heavy aircraft. AIP AD

36.63.20

State the maximum airspeed below 10,000 feet. CAR 91

36.63.22

State the minimum descent height in IMC at an unattended aerodrome where traffic conflict may exist. AIP ENR.

36.64

Terrain Clearance

36.64.2

Describe the determination of the minimum safe altitude for IFR flight. AIP GEN

36.64.4

Explain the coverage and use of VORSEC charts. AIP GEN

36.64.6

Explain the coverage and use of 25nm Minimum Sector Altitude diagrams. AIP GEN

36.64.8

State when the radar control service is responsible for the provision of terrain clearance. AIP ENR

36.64.10

Explain how radar control provides terrain clearance. AIP ENR

36.64.12

Describe the use of DME descent steps for maintaining terrain clearance during departure climb or descent for an approach. AIP GEN & ENR

36.65

Weather Avoidance

36.65.2

State the requirements for deviation off track for weather avoidance. AIP ENR

36.66

Radar Services

36.66.2

Describe the radar services available to VFR and IFR flights. AIP ENR

36.66.4

Describe the responsibility of the radar controller to keep an aircraft within controlled airspace. AIP ENR

36.66.6

State the accuracy limits required when under radar speed control. AIP ENR

36.66.8

State the distance from touchdown that radar speed control can be maintained on an instrument and a visual approach. AIP ENR

36.66.10

State the meteorological and other conditions which allow a radar controller to vector an aircraft for a visual approach. AIP ENR

36.66.12

State the criteria for a radar controller to consider an unknown aircraft to be on a conflicting path with another aircraft. AIP ENR

36.67

Oceanic Procedures

36.67.2

State the pilot’s actions, under oceanic procedures, when deviation from track to avoid weather is required, and contact with ATC cannot be established to receive a clearance. AIP ENR

36.67.4

State the pilot’s actions, under oceanic procedures, when aircraft are unable to meet RNP10 criteria, and wish to enter RNP10 airspace. AIP ENR

36.67.6

State the requirements, under oceanic procedures, which must be met before longitudinal separation between reciprocal track aircraft may be reduced. AIP ENR

36.67.8

State the requirements for position reports by aircraft using uncharted (random) oceanic routes. AIP ENR

36.68

Global Navigation Satellite System

36.68.2

State the equipment required by aircraft within the New Zealand flight information region, using GPS as a primary means navigation system. CAR 19

36.68.4

State the meaning of a GPS “sole means navigation system”. CAR 19

36.68.6

State the restriction on using GPS as a sole means navigation system under IFR in the New Zealand flight information region. CAR 19

36.68.8

State the actions required of pilots, under IFR using GPS equipment as a primary means navigation system, if system degradation occurs. CAR 19

36.68.10

State the requirements which must be met before a pilot of an aircraft operating within the New Zealand flight information region, under IFR, using GPS equipment as a primary means navigation system, is permitted random flight routing. CAR 19

36.68.12

State the requirements for carrying out an instrument approach using GPS equipment as a primary means navigation system. CAR 19

36.68.14

State the requirements for the nomination of an alternate if GPS is used as a primary means navigation system. CAR 19

 

Airspace and Aerodromes

36.70

Altimetry

36.70.2

State the altimeter setting procedures required when operating in the Auckland Oceanic FIR. AIP ENR

36.70.4

State the altimeter setting procedures required when operating in the New Zealand FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.70.6

State the procedure to use to obtain an altimeter setting when QNH is not available prior to take-off and the requirement to obtain a QNH once in flight. AIP ENR

36.70.8

Describe QNH zones and state when zone QNH should be used. AIP ENR

36.70.10

Describe the transition altitude, layer and level. AIP ENR

36.72

Cruising Levels

36.72.2

State the altitude/flight level requirements when cruising IFR within the Auckland Oceanic FIR. AIP ENR

36.72.4

State the altitude/flight level requirements when cruising IFR within the New Zealand FIR. CAR 91 AIP ENR

36.72.6

Determine from charts and publications the minimum flight altitude (MFA) for a route sector.

36.72.8

Describe situations where ATC may assign cruising altitudes not in accordance with the IFR table of cruising altitudes. AIP ENR

36.72.10

State the position by which an aircraft must be at a higher MFA if one is specified. AIP GEN

36.74

Transponders

36.74.2

State the requirements for the operation of transponders within the New Zealand FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.74.4

Describe the procedures required of pilots operating transponders. AIP ENR

36.74.6

Describe the altitude accuracy limits of transponders. AIP ENR

36.74.8

State the requirements and limitations on an aircraft operating in transponder mandatory airspace without an operating transponder. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75

Airspace

36.75.2

State the rules pertaining to operating IFR in the various classes of airspace. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75.4

Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control zones (CTR). CAR 71

36.75.6

Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control areas (CTA). CAR 71

36.75.8

State the status and conditions relating to flight in VFR transit lanes. AIP ENR

36.75.10

Describe the status and purpose of a general aviation area (GAA). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75.12

Describe visual reporting points.

36.75.14

Describe the status of controlled airspace when ATC go off duty. AIP GEN

36.75.16

State the restrictions on operating an aircraft in a restricted area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75.18

State the restrictions on operating an aircraft in a military operating area (MOA). CAR 91 & AIP

36.75.20

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a mandatory broadcast zone (MBZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75.22

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a volcanic hazard zone (VHZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75.24

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a danger area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.75.26

State the operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a common frequency zone (CFZ). AIP ENR

36.75.28

State the operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft over or close to temporary hazards/airspace. AIP ENR

36.75.30

Explain the requirements for the operation of an aircraft in RNP airspace. AIP ENR

36.75.32

Interpret airspace information on aeronautical charts.

36.76

Aerodromes

36.76.2

Describe the limitations on the use of a place as an aerodrome. CAR 91

36.76.4

Describe the method of runway designation. AIP AD

36.76.6

Describe the movement area of an aerodrome. CAR 1

36.76.8

Describe the meaning of the various aerodrome ground signals.

36.76.10

Interpret runway, taxiway, apron and stand signs and markings.

36.76.12

Interpret information on aerodrome charts. AIP GEN & Volume 4

36.78

Aerodrome Lighting

36.78.2

Describe the lighting intensity classifications.

36.78.4

Describe the following lighting systems:

          (a)      Runway edge lighting (REDL)

          (b)      Runway landing threshold lighting (RTHL)

          (c)      Runway end lighting (RENL)

          (d)      Runway centreline lighting system (RCLL)

          (e)      Runway touchdown zone lighting (RTZL)

           (f)      Runway end identifier lighting (REIL)

          (g)      Approach lighting systems (ALS)

          (h)      Circling guidance lighting (CGL)

           (i)      Runway lead in lighting (RLLS)

           (j)      Pilot activated lighting (PAL)

          (k)      T-Visual approach slope indicators (T-VASIS)

           (l)      Visual approach slope indicators (VASIS)

        (m)      Precision approach path indicators (PAPI).

36.78.6

Describe aerodrome beacons.

36.78.8

Describe the indication of above, on and below slope for:

          (a)      PAPIs

          (b)      VASIS

          (c)      T-VASIS.

 

Emergencies Incidents and Accidents

36.80

Responsibilities of Operators and Pilots

36.80.2

State the requirement for the notification of accidents. CAR 12

36.80.4

State the requirement for the notification of incidents. CAR 12

36.80.6

State the extent to which a pilot may deviate from the CA Act or rules in an emergency situation. CA Act 1990 S13A (2)

36.80.8

State the pilot action required following deviation from the CA Act or rules in an emergency situation. CA Act 1990 S13A (6)

36.82

Communications and Equipment

36.82.2

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate an emergency condition. AIP ENR

36.82.4

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate a loss of communications. AIP ENR

36.82.6

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate that the aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference. AIP ENR

36.82.8

Describe the means by which ATC will verify the transmission of an emergency SSR transponder code. AIP ENR

36.82.10

Describe the use of the speechless technique using unmodulated transmissions. AIP ENR

36.82.12

Describe and interpret ground-air visual signal codes. AIP GEN

36.82.14

Describe the procedures for directing a surface craft to a distress incident. AIP GEN

36.82.16

State the procedures for the emergency activation of an ELT. AIP GEN

36.82.18

State the pilot action required following the inadvertent transmission of an ELT. AIP GEN

36.82.20

State the requirements for the operational testing of an ELT. AIP GEN

36.82.22

State the procedures to be followed on receiving an ELT signal. AIP GEN

 

 

 

Instrument Departures and Approaches

36.90

Departure Procedures

36.90.2

Interpret information on SID and Departure Procedure charts.

36.90.4

Determine the IFR take-off minima for a departure off a given runway. AIP ENR

36.90.6

State the IFR take-off minima if it is not prescribed in Volume 3 and 4. AIP ENR

36.90.8

State the CAR Part 91 requirements and limitations of IFR reduced take-off minima. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.90.10

State the minimum height for a turn after take-off on departure. AIP ENR

36.90.12

State the minimum climb gradient on a SID unless otherwise specified. AIP ENR

36.90.14

Calculate the rate of climb required to meet the net climb gradient specified on instrument departures. AIP ENR

36.90.16

State when a departure procedure terminates. AIP ENR

36.90.18

State the limitation on the termination of radar vectoring for a departing IFR aircraft. AIP ENR

36.90.20

State the requirements for broadcasting intentions when departing from an unattended aerodrome. AIP ENR

36.90.22

State the requirements for and limitations on a visual departure. AIP ENR

36.90.24

Describe the operating restrictions where an IFR departure procedure is not promulgated. AIP ENR

36.92

Holding Procedures

36.92.2

State the maximum speed in en-route holding patterns. AIP ENR

36.92.4

State the maximum entry and holding pattern speeds. AIP ENR

36.92.6

Identify and describe appropriate holding pattern entry procedures. AIP ENR

36.92.8

State when an onwards clearance time will be passed to the pilots of an aircraft instructed to hold en-route. AIP ENR

36.92.10

State when an expected approach time will be passed to the pilots of an aircraft instructed to hold at an initial approach fix. AIP ENR

36.92.12

State the angle of bank required during turns in a holding pattern. AIP ENR

36.94

Approach Procedures

36.94.2

Describe the descent limitations from cruise to approach commencement. AIP GEN

36.94.4

Interpret information on STAR charts. AIP GEN

36.94.6

State the limitation on a clearance to fly a STAR. AIP ENR

36.94.8

Define the minimum initial approach altitude. AIP ENR

36.94.10

Interpret information on instrument approach charts.

36.94.12

Determine the IFR meteorological minima for an instrument approach to a given runway.

36.94.14

State the meteorological minima which must exist prior to a landing off an instrument approach. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

36.94.16

Describe the procedures for joining overhead a navigation aid for an instrument approach. AIP ENR

36.94.18

State the minimum meteorological conditions which must exist before ATC may clear an aircraft for an instrument approach with a descent restriction. AIP ENR

36.94.20

State the meteorological and other conditions which will allow a pilot to request a visual approach in controlled airspace. AIP ENR

36.94.22

State the meteorological and other conditions which allow ATC to advise that conditions are suitable for a visual approach. AIP ENR

36.94.24

State the meteorological and other conditions which will allow a pilot to carry out a visual approach in uncontrolled airspace. AIP ENR

36.94.26

Describe the provision of traffic separation and terrain clearance during a visual approach. AIP ENR

36.94.28

Given an aircraft’s Vs, determine its category for approach speeds and minima. AIP ENR

36.94.30

State the category B and C speed limitations during an instrument approach under ICAO PANS OPS II procedures. AIP ENR

36.94.32

State the requirements for making position reports during an instrument approach in controlled and uncontrolled airspace. AIP ENR

36.94.34

Describe the procedures for carrying out an instrument approach at an unattended aerodrome. AIP ENR

36.94.36

Determine the minimum descent altitude using a QNH from a remote location. AIP ENR

36.94.38

State when descent below decision altitude or minimum descent altitude may be made on an instrument approach. AIP ENR

36.94.40

Describe the missed approach procedures and limitations. AIP ENR

36.96

Communications and Navigation Aid Failure

36.96.2

Describe the procedures required following a communications failure en-route. AIP ENR

36.96.4

Describe the procedures required following a communications failure during an instrument approach. AIP ENR

36.96.6

Describe the procedure to be carried out in the event of a radio navigation aid failure during an approach. AIP ENR

36.96.8

State the requirements for changing approach types in the event of a radio navigation aid failure during an approach. AIP ENR

Subject No. 37        ATPL Air Law (Helicopter)

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate. These topic reference numbers may be common across the subject levels and therefore may not be consecutive within a specific syllabus.

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

General

37.2

Aviation Legislation

37.2.2

Describe the requirements to hold an aviation document, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S7.

37.2.4

Describe the criteria for the fit and proper person test, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S10.

37.2.6

Describe the duties of the pilot-in-command, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S13 and 13A.

37.2.8

Describe the responsibilities of a licence holder with respect to changes in their medical condition, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S27.

37.2.10

Describe the responsibilities of a licence holder with respect to the surrender of a medical certificate as laid down in CA Act 1990 S27.

37.2.12

Describe the responsibilities of a licence holder with respect to safety offences, as laid down in CA Act 1990 S43 and 44.

37.4

Definitions

37.4.2

CAR Part 1 (unless otherwise noted)

State the definition of:

          (a)      accident

          (b)      Act

          (c)      aerodrome control service

          (d)      aerodrome operational area

          (e)      aeronautical information circular

           (f)      aircraft category

          (g)      air transport operation

          (h)      air operation

           (i)      airworthiness certificate

           (j)      airworthiness directive

          (k)      airworthy condition

           (l)      alerting service

        (m)      alternate aerodrome

          (n)      altitude

          (o)      approach control

          (p)      area control

          (q)      area navigation

           (r)      ATC clearance

          (s)      ATC instruction

           (t)      barometric vertical navigation (baro-VNAV) AIP GEN

          (u)      augmented crew

          (v)      Category I precision approach procedure

        (w)      Category II precision approach procedure

          (x)      ceiling

          (y)      certified organisation

          (z)      Class 3.1A Flammable liquid

       (aa)       Class 3.1C Flammable liquid

      (bb)       Class 3.1D Flammable liquid

       (cc)       clearance limit

      (dd)       command practise

       (ee)       commercial transport operation

        (ff)      controlled airspace

      (gg)       controlled flight

      (hh)       co-pilot

         (ii)      crew member

         (jj)      dangerous goods

      (kk)      day

         (ll)      decision altitude (DA)

  (mm)      decision height (DH)

      (nn)      design helicopter (AIP GEN)

      (oo)      disabled passenger

      (pp)      dual flight time

      (qq)      escorted passenger

        (rr)      final reserve fuel

        (ss)      fit and proper person

         (tt)      flight crew member

      (uu)      flight examiner

      (vv)      flight level

   (ww)      flight manual

      (xx)      flight plan

      (yy)      flight time

       (zz)      height

    (aaa)      heliport (AIP GEN)

  (bbb)      IFR flight

    (ccc)      incident

  (ddd)      instrument approach procedure

    (eee)      instrument flight

      (fff)      instrument flight time

  (ggg)      instrument meteorological conditions

  (hhh)      instrument time

       (iii)      minimum descent altitude (MDA)

       (jjj)      minimum descent height (MDH)

  (kkk)      minimum safe altitude (AIP GEN)

       (lll)      minimum sector altitude (MSA 25M) (AIP GEN)

(mmm)      night

  (nnn)      NOTAM

  (ooo)      passenger

  (ppp)      pilot-in-command

  (qqq)      precision approach procedure

      (rrr)      pressure altitude

     (sss)      procedure altitude (AIP GEN)

       (ttt)      rated coverage (AIP GEN)

  (uuu)      rating

  (vvv)      regular air transport passenger service

(www)      reporting point

  (xxx)      RNP performance

  (yyy)      runway visual range

    (zzz)      SARTIME

(aaaa)      serious incident

(bbbb)      segment OCA (AIP GEN)

(cccc)      take-off distance available

(dddd)      take-off run available

(eeee)      take-off weight

    (ffff)      Technical Instructions

(gggg)      threshold (CAR 121.3)

(hhhh)      type

     (iiii)      unlawful interference

     (jjjj)      VFR flight

(kkkk)      visibility

     (llll)      visual meteorological conditions and

(mmmm)      ZFT simulator.

37.6

Abbreviations

37.6.2

CAR Part 1 (unless otherwise noted)

State the meaning of the following abbreviations:

          (a)      ACAS

          (b)      AD

          (c)      ADF

          (d)      AGL

          (e)      AMSL

           (f)      ATIS

          (g)      CAR

          (h)      CRM

           (i)      DME

           (j)      ELT

          (k)      FATO (AIP GEN)

           (l)      GPWS

        (m)      ICAO

          (n)      ILS

          (o)      OGE

          (p)      QFE

          (q)      QNH

           (r)      RNP

          (s)      RTODAH (AIP GEN)

           (t)      RVR

          (u)      TODAH (AIP GEN)

          (v)      TALO (AIP GEN)

        (w)      TLOF (AIP GEN)

          (x)      TAWS

          (y)      TCAS

          (z)      VOR

       (aa)      VTOL (AIP GEN)

      (bb)       ZFT.

 

Personnel Licensing

37.10

Requirements for Licences and Ratings

37.10.2

State the requirements for holding a pilot’s licence. CAR 61

37.10.4

State the requirements for a pilot-in-command to hold a type rating on the type of aircraft being flown. CAR 61

37.10.6

State the requirements for entering flight details into a pilot’s logbook. CAR 61

37.12

Eligibility, Privileges and Limitations

37.12.2

Describe the allowance for a person who does not hold a current pilot’s licence to fly dual with an instructor. CAR 61

37.12.4

State the solo flight requirements on person who does not hold a current pilot’s licence. CAR 61

37.12.6

State the limitations on a person who does not hold a current pilot’s licence. CAR 61

37.12.8

State the eligibility requirements for the issue of a helicopter air transport pilot’s licence. CAR 61

37.12.10

State the privileges of holding a helicopter air transport pilot’s licence. CAR 61

37.14

Competency, Currency and Recency

37.14.2

State the recent experience requirements of a pilot-in-command on an air operation, who is the holder of an airline transport pilot licence. CAR 61

37.14.4

State the requirements for the completion of a biennial flight review. CAR 61

37.14.6

Explain the use of a lower licence or rating. CAR 61

37.14.8

State the period within which a pilot-in-command of a helicopter engaged on an air operation under CAR Part 135 must have passed a check of route and aerodrome proficiency.

37.14.10

State the period within which a pilot, acting as a flight crew member of a helicopter engaged on a CAR Part 135 air operation under VFR, must have passed a check of normal, abnormal and emergency procedures in the same aircraft type.

37.14.12

State the period within which a pilot, acting as a flight crew member of a helicopter engaged on a CAR Part 135 air operation under IFR, must have passed a check of normal, abnormal and emergency procedures in the same aircraft type.

37.14.14

State the period within which a pilot of a helicopter engaged on an air operation under CAR Part 135 must have completed a written or oral test of their knowledge in aeroplane systems, performance and operating procedures.

37.14.16

State the CAR Part 135 crew member grace provisions.

37.14.18

State the currency requirements of a pilot who is the holder of an instrument rating. CAR 61

37.14.20

State the currency requirements for carrying out an instrument approach. CAR 61

37.14.22

State the requirements for acting as a safety pilot during simulated instrument flight. CAR 61

37.16

Medical Requirements

37.16.2

State the requirements for holding a medical certificate. CAR 61

37.16.4

State the requirements on a person applying for a medical certificate. CAR 67

37.16.6

State the requirements for maintaining medical fitness following the issue of a medical certificate. CA Act 1990 S27C

37.16.8

State the normal currency period of the Class 1 medical certificate for an ATPL holder who is under the age of 40. CAR 67

37.16.10

State the normal currency period of the Class 1 medical certificate for an ATPL holder who is 40 years of age or more on the date that the certificate is issued. CAR 67

 

Airworthiness of Aircraft and Aircraft Equipment

37.20

Documentation

37.20.2

State the documents which must be carried in aircraft operated in New Zealand. CAR 91

37.22

Aircraft Maintenance

37.22.2

Describe the maintenance requirements of an aircraft operator. CAR 91

37.22.4

State the requirements for maintenance records. CAR 91

37.22.6

State the requirements for the retention of maintenance records. CAR 91

37.22.8

State the requirements for and contents of a technical log. CAR 91

37.22.10

State the requirements for entering defects into a technical log. CAR 91

37.22.12

State the requirements for clearing defects from a technical log. CAR 91

37.22.14

State the limitations and requirements on a person undertaking ‘pilot maintenance’. CAR 43

37.22.16

State the requirements for conducting an operational flight check on an aircraft. CAR 91

37.22.18

State the requirements for acting as a test pilot. CAR 19

37.22.20

State the inspection period for radios. CAR 91

37.22.22

State the inspection period for altimeters. CAR 91

37.22.24

State the inspection period for transponders. CAR 91

37.22.26

State the inspection period for the ELT. CAR 91

37.24

Instruments and Avionics

37.24.2

State the minimum instrument requirements for a day VFR flight. CAR 91

37.24.4

State the minimum instrument requirements for a night VFR flight. CAR 91

37.24.6

State the radio equipment requirements for a VFR flight. CAR 91

37.24.8

State the communications and navigation equipment requirements for a VFR over water flight. CAR 91

37.24.10

State the minimum instrument requirements for an IFR flight. CAR 91

37.24.12

State the communications and navigation equipment requirements for an IFR flight. CAR 91

37.26

Equipment

37.26.2

State the requirements for night flight. CAR 91

37.26.4

State the equipment requirements for a night VFR flight. CAR 91

37.26.6

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for night flight.

37.26.8

State the equipment requirements for an IFR flight. CAR 91

37.26.10

State the equipment requirements for flight over water. CAR 91 & CAR 135

37.26.12

State the requirements for emergency equipment in helicopters with seating capacity for more than 10 passengers. CAR 91

37.26.14

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for emergency equipment.

37.26.16

State the requirements for an ELT. CAR 91

37.26.18

State the requirements for indicating the time in flight. CAR 91

37.26.20

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for a cockpit voice recorder.

37.26.22

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for a flight data recorder.

37.26.24

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for an additional altitude indicator.

37.26.26

Explain the requirement for altitude alerting/assigned altitude indicating. CAR 91

 

General Operating and Flight Rules

37.30

General Operating Requirements

37.30.2

Describe the requirements of passengers to comply with instructions and commands. CAR 91

37.30.4

Explain the requirements for maintaining daily flight records. CAR 91

37.30.6

State the aircraft requirements for giving flight instruction. CAR 91

37.30.8

State the requirements for operating an aircraft in simulated instrument flight. CAR 91

37.30.10

State the requirements of a pilot-in-command with respect to the safe operation of an aircraft. CAR 91

37.30.12

Describe the authority of the pilot-in-command. CAR 91

37.30.14

State the requirements for crew occupation of seats and wearing safety belts. CAR 91

37.30.16

State the requirements for the occupation of seats and wearing of restraints. CAR 91

37.30.18

State the requirements for the use of oxygen equipment. CAR 91

37.30.20

State the requirements for briefing passengers prior to flight. CAR 91

37.30.22

State the requirements for familiarity with operating limitations and emergency equipment. CAR 91

37.30.24

State the requirements for carrying appropriate aeronautical publications and charts in flight. CAR 91

37.30.26

State the requirements for operating on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome. CAR 91

37.30.28

Describe the standard overhead joining procedure, and state when it should be used. AIP AD

37.30.30

State and describe the application of the right of way rules. CAR 91

37.30.32

Explain the requirement for aircraft lighting. CAR 91

37.30.34

State the requirements for the pilot of a helicopter, being flown for the purpose of demonstrating eligibility for the issue of an airworthiness certificate. CAR 91

37.30.36

State the requirements for wearing/holding identity documentation in certain areas. CAR 19

37.32

General Operating Restrictions

37.32.2

State the restrictions on smoking in a helicopter. CA Act 1990 S65N

37.32.4

State the restrictions associated with the abuse of drugs and alcohol. CAR 91 and CAR 19

37.32.6

State the restrictions on the use of portable electronic devices in flight. CAR 91

37.32.8

State the restrictions on the carriage and discharge of firearms on helicopters. CAR 91

37.32.10

Explain the restrictions on stowage of carry-on baggage. CAR 91

37.32.12

Explain the restrictions on the carriage of cargo. CAR 91

37.32.14

State the restrictions applicable to aircraft flying near other aircraft. CAR 91

37.32.16

State the restrictions on the dropping of objects from a helicopter in flight. CAR 91

37.32.18

State the minimum heights for VFR flights under CAR Part 91.

37.32.20

State the restrictions when operating VFR in icing conditions. CAR 91

37.32.22

State the restrictions when operating IFR in icing conditions. CAR 91

37.32.24

State the restrictions applicable to operating a helicopter in aerobatic flight. CAR 91

37.32.26

State the restrictions applicable to parachute-drop operations. CAR 91

37.32.28

State the restrictions on aircraft noise and engine emission standards. CAR 91

37.34

General Meteorological Requirements and Restrictions

37.34.2

State the met minima for VFR flight in various airspace. CAR 91

37.34.4

State the restrictions and met minima for Special VFR flight. CAR 91

37.36

Carriage of Dangerous Goods

37.36.2

Describe the limitation of CAR Part 92 with respect to members of the Police.

37.36.4

State the restriction for the carriage of dangerous goods in a helicopter’s cabin occupied by passengers, or in the cockpit of a helicopter. CAR 92

37.36.6

Describe the allowance for the carriage of dangerous goods for the recreational use of passengers. CAR 92

37.36.8

State the requirements for the carriage of non-dangerous goods in an aircraft. CAR 92

37.36.10

State the requirement for the notification of the pilot-in-command when dangerous goods are carried. CAR 92

37.36.12

State the requirement for a dangerous goods training programme. CAR 92

37.36.14

State the dangerous goods recurrent training programme requirements. CAR 92

37.36.16

State the allowance for the carriage of dangerous goods as an under-slung load. CAR 133

37.38

Helicopter External Load Operations

37.38.2

State the definition of:

          (a)      helicopter external load operation

          (b)      helicopter external load towing operation

          (c)      helicopter sling load operation

          (d)      OGE. CAR 133

37.38.4

State the pilot licence requirements for performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.6

Describe the minimum height requirements when performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.8

State the restrictions on the carriage of persons inside a helicopter on a helicopter external load towing operation. CAR 133

37.38.10

State the restrictions on the carriage of persons inside a helicopter on a helicopter sling load operation. CAR 133

37.38.12

State the restrictions on the carriage of persons inside a helicopter on a winching, rappelling, or human sling load operation. CAR 133

37.38.14

State the third party risk restrictions when carrying a load suspended beneath a helicopter. CAR 133

37.38.16

State the weight limitation for a helicopter performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.18

State the flight rules restriction for a helicopter performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.20

Describe the restrictions on helicopter external load operations at night. CAR 133

37.38.22

Describe the flight characteristics requirements for a helicopter performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.24

Explain the requirements for performing a helicopter external load operation over congested areas. CAR 133

37.38.26

Describe the general requirements for performing an operation involving the suspension of a person beneath a helicopter. CAR 133

37.38.28

State the requirements for performing a helicopter winch operation. CAR 133

37.38.30

State the requirements for the carriage of an injured person beneath a helicopter in a harness or stretcher. CAR 133

37.38.32

State the requirements for performing a helicopter rappelling operation. CAR 133

37.38.34

Explain the requirements for the carriage of a supplementary crew member on a helicopter performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.36

Explain the requirements for ensuring crew member competency to carryout winching, rappelling, or human sling load operations. CAR 133

37.38.38

Describe the external load equipment requirements on a helicopter performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.40

Describe the requirements for quick release devices on a helicopter performing a helicopter external load operation. CAR 133

37.38.42

Explain the requirements for the maintenance of external load equipment. CAR 133

 

Air Operations

37.40

Air Operations Crew Requirements

37.40.2

State the CAR Part 135 crew qualification and experience requirements.

37.40.4

State the CAR Part 135 flight and duty time limitations on flight crew members.

37.40.6

State the AC119-2 normal minimum rest period required following any duty period.

37.40.8

State the maximum number of flight hours that a pilot may fly as crew in a helicopter which carries two pilots on an internal air operation. AC119

37.42

Air Operations Requirements and Restrictions

37.42.2

State the airworthiness requirements for a helicopter used on air operations. CAR 135

37.42.4

State the CAR Part 135 minimum heights for VFR flights.

37.42.6

State the CAR Part 135 operating restriction on single-engine air operations under IFR (SEIFR).

37.42.8

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for reduced take-off minima.

37.42.10

State the requirement to keep a daily flight record. CAR 135

37.42.12

State the CAR Part 135 requirement for a maintenance review.

37.42.14

State the CAR Part 135 requirement for passenger safety and the carriage of certain passengers.

37.42.16

State the CAR Part 135 restrictions when refuelling.

37.42.18

State the CAR Part 135 restrictions on the manipulation of a helicopter’s controls.

37.42.20

State the CAR Part 135 requirement for helicopter operations over congested areas.

37.42.22

State the restrictions on helicopter sling loads on an air operation. CAR 135

37.44

Air Operations Meteorological Requirements and Restrictions

37.44.2

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for persons performing an air operation to use meteorological information.

37.44.4

State the CAR Part 135 meteorological conditions and requirements for an air operation under VFR.

37.44.6

State the CAR Part 135 meteorological conditions and requirements for an air operation under IFR.

37.44.8

State the CAR Part 135 aerodrome operating minima - IFR flight.

37.44.10

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for reduced take-off minima.

37.44.12

State the CAR Part 135 restrictions for IFR procedures.

37.46

Air Operations Performance Requirements

37.46.2

State the meaning of a Performance-Class 1 (Category A) helicopter. CAR Pt 1

37.48

Air Operations Weight and Balance Requirements

37.48.2

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for managing weight and balance of aircraft used on an air operation.

 

Flight Planning and Preparation

37.50

Flight Preparation

37.50.2

Explain the requirements for the obtaining and considering relevant information prior to flight. CAR 91

37.50.4

Describe the publications and their content that provide operational route and aerodrome information.

37.50.6

Derive operational information from charts and publications that provide route, approach and aerodrome information.

37.52

Alternate Requirements

37.52.2

State the meteorological minima at destination which would require an alternate to be nominated. CAR 91

37.52.4

State the meteorological minima at departure which would require a CAR Part 135 IFR operation to nominate a departure alternate. CAR 135

37.52.6

Determine the meteorological minima required at an aerodrome for it to be nominated as an IFR alternate. CAR 91

37.52.8

State the power supply requirements for the selection of an aerodrome as an alternate on an IFR air operation. CAR 91

37.52.10

State the reference datum for take-off meteorological minima for IFR operations. CAR 91

37.52.12

State the reference datum for landing meteorological minima for IFR operations. CAR 91

37.52.14

State the reference datum for alternate meteorological minima for IFR operations. AIP ENR

37.54

Fuel Requirements

37.54.2

State the fuel reserve required for a VFR flight in a helicopter. CAR 91

37.54.4

State the fuel reserve required for an IFR flight in a helicopter. CAR 91

37.56

Flight Plans

37.56.2

State the CAR Part 135 requirements for the filing of a flight plan.

37.56.4

State the requirements for the notification of changes to a filed VFR flight plan. CAR 91

37.56.6

State the requirements for the terminating a VFR flight plan. CAR 91

37.56.8

State the requirements for the filing of a flight plan for flight under IFR. CAR 91

37.56.10

State the notification lead time for filing an IFR flight plan. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.56.12

State the requirements for adhering to an IFR flight plan. CAR 91

37.56.14

State the requirements for the notification of changes to the filed IFR flight plan. CAR 91

37.56.16

State the requirements for an inadvertent departure from an IFR flight plan. CAR 91

37.56.18

State the requirements for the cancellation of an IFR flight plan in various airspaces. AIP ENR

37.56.20

State the requirements for the terminating an IFR flight plan at an aerodrome without ATS. CAR 91

37.56.22

State the time search and rescue action would be initiated if a flight plan is not terminated. AIP ENR

 

Air Traffic Services

37.60

Communications

37.60.2

Derive from operational publications, the required radio frequency for communicating with specified ATC units.

37.60.4

Explain the use of aircraft radiotelephony callsigns. CAR 91

37.60.6

State the requirements for making position reports to an ATS unit. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.60.8

State the content of a position report. AIP ENR

37.60.10

State the purpose of Universal Communications Services (UNICOM). AIP GEN

37.60.12

State the purpose of an Aerodrome Frequency Response Unit (AFRU). AIP GEN

37.60.14

State the purpose of Aerodrome and Weather Information Broadcasts (AWIB). AIP GEN

37.60.16

State the meaning of the various light signals from a control tower. CAR 91 & AIP AD

37.60.18

State the communications requirements when TIBA procedures are in force. AIP ENR

37.62

Clearances

37.62.2

State the requirements for complying with ATC clearances and instructions. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.62.4

State the requirements for coordinating with an aerodrome flight information service. CAR 91

37.62.6

State the requirements for receiving an ATC clearance prior to entering various types of airspace, and ground manoeuvring area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.62.8

State the requirements for receiving an ATC clearance prior to re-entering controlled airspace. CAR 91

37.63

Separation

37.63.2

Describe the method of passing traffic information using the clock code.

37.63.4

Describe the situations where Air Traffic Control is responsible for the provision of separation between VFR, SVFR and IFR traffic. AIP ENR

37.63.6

Describe the situations where the pilot-in-command of an IFR flight is responsible for maintaining separation from other traffic. AIP ENR

37.63.8

Describe the normal separation standards applied by ATC. AIP ENR

37.63.10

Describe the situations where the normal separation may be reduced. AIP ENR

37.63.12

State the meaning of the term “Essential traffic”. AIP ENR

37.63.14

State the conditions under which longitudinal separation between reciprocal track aircraft may be reduced. AIP ENR

37.63.16

State the wake turbulence separation requirements for light aircraft in non-radar environment. AIP AD

37.63.18

State the minimum descent height in IMC at an unattended aerodrome where traffic conflict may exist. AIP ENR

37.64

Terrain Clearance

37.64.2

Describe the determination of the minimum safe altitude for IFR flight. AIP GEN

37.64.4

Explain the coverage and use of VORSEC charts. AIP GEN

37.64.6

Explain the coverage and use of 25nm Minimum Sector Altitude diagrams. AIP GEN

37.64.8

State when the radar control service is responsible for the provision of terrain clearance. AIP ENR

37.64.10

Explain how radar control provides terrain clearance. AIP ENR

37.64.12

Describe the use of DME descent steps for maintaining terrain clearance during departure climb or descent for an approach. AIP GEN and ENR

37.65

Weather Avoidance

37.65.2

State the requirements for deviation off track for weather avoidance. AIP ENR

37.66

Radar Services

37.66.2

Describe the radar services available to VFR and IFR flights. AIP ENR

37.66.4

Describe the responsibility of the radar controller to keep an aircraft within controlled airspace. AIP ENR

37.66.6

State the accuracy limits required when under radar speed control. AIP ENR

37.66.8

State the distance from touchdown that radar speed control can be maintained on an instrument and a visual approach. AIP ENR

37.66.10

State the meteorological and other conditions which allow a radar controller to vector an aircraft for a visual approach. AIP ENR

37.66.12

State the criteria for a radar controller to consider an unknown aircraft to be on a conflicting path with another aircraft. AIP ENR

37.68

Global Navigation Satellite System.

37.68.2

State the equipment required by aircraft on air operations within the New Zealand flight information region, using GPS as a primary means navigation system. CAR 19

37.68.4

State the meaning of a GPS “sole means navigation system”. CAR 19

37.68.6

State the restriction on using GPS as a sole means navigation system under IFR in the New Zealand flight information region. CAR 19

37.68.8

State the actions required of pilots, under IFR using GPS equipment as a primary means navigation system, if system degradation occurs. CAR 19

37.68.10

State the requirements which must be met before a pilot of an aircraft operating within the New Zealand flight information region, under IFR, using GPS equipment as a primary means navigation system, is permitted random flight routing. CAR 19

37.68.12

State the requirements for carrying out an instrument approach using GPS equipment as a primary means navigation system. CAR 19

37.68.14

State the requirements for the nomination of an alternate if GPS is used as a primary means navigation system. CAR 19

 

Airspace, Aerodromes and Heliports

37.70

Altimetry

37.70.2

State the altimeter setting requirements for flight under VFR and IFR in the New Zealand FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.70.4

State the procedure to use to obtain an altimeter setting when QNH is not available prior to take-off and the requirement to obtain a QNH once in flight. AIP ENR

37.70.6

Describe QNH zones and state when zone QNH should be used. AIP ENR

37.70.8

Describe the transition altitude, layer and level. AIP ENR

 

37.72

Cruising Levels

37.72.2

State the altitude/flight level requirements when cruising VFR and IFR within the New Zealand FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.72.4

Determine from charts and publications the minimum flight altitude (MFA) for a route sector.

37.72.6

Describe situations where ATC may assign cruising altitudes not in accordance with the table of cruising altitudes. AIP ENR

37.72.8

Determine the minimum flight altitude (MFA) for a route sector.

37.72.10

State the position by which an aircraft must be at a higher MFA if one is specified. AIP GEN

37.74

Transponders

37.74.2

State the requirements for the operation of transponders within the New Zealand FIR. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.74.4

Describe the procedures required of pilots operating transponders. AIP ENR

37.74.6

Describe the altitude accuracy limits of transponders. AIP ENR

37.74.8

State the requirements and limitations on an aircraft operating under VFR in transponder mandatory airspace without an operating transponder. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75

Airspace

37.75.2

State the rules pertaining to operating VFR in the various classes of airspace. CAR 91 and AIP ENR

37.75.4

Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control zones (CTR). CAR 71

37.75.6

Describe the vertical limits and purpose of control areas (CTA). CAR 71

37.75.8

State the status and conditions relating to flight in VFR transit lanes. AIP ENR

37.75.10

Describe the status and purpose of a general aviation area (GAA). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.12

Describe visual reporting points.

37.75.14

Describe the status of controlled airspace when ATC go off duty. AIP GEN

37.75.16

State the restrictions on operating an aircraft in a restricted area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.18

State the restrictions on operating an aircraft in a military operating area (MOA). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.20

State the purpose of the various special use airspace. AIP ENR

37.75.22

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a mandatory broadcast zone (MBZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.24

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a volcanic hazard zone (VHZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.26

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a danger area. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.28

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a parachute landing area (PLA). AIP ENR

37.75.30

State the restrictions and operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a designated low flying zone (LFZ). CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.75.32

State the operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft in a common frequency zone (CFZ). AIP ENR

37.75.34

State the operating considerations relating to operating an aircraft over or close to temporary hazards/airspace. AIP ENR

37.75.36

Interpret airspace information on aeronautical charts.

37.76

Aerodromes and Heliports

37.76.2

Describe the limitations on the use of a place as an aerodrome or heliport. CAR 91.

37.76.4

Describe the method of runway designation. AIP AD

37.76.6

Describe the movement area of an aerodrome. CAR 1

37.76.8

Describe the meaning of the various aerodrome ground signals.

37.76.10

Describe and interpret heliport markings and lighting.

37.76.12

Interpret runway, taxiway, apron and stand signs and markings.

37.76.14

Interpret information on aerodrome/heliport charts. AIP GEN

37.78

Aerodrome Lighting

37.78.2

Describe the lighting intensity classifications.

37.78.4

Describe the following lighting systems:

          (a)      Runway edge lighting (REDL)

          (b)      Runway landing threshold lighting (RTHL)

          (c)      Runway end lighting (RENL)

          (d)      Runway centreline lighting system (RCLL)

          (e)      Runway touchdown zone lighting (RTZL)

           (f)      Runway end identifier lighting (REIL)

          (g)      Approach lighting systems (ALS)

          (h)      Circling guidance lighting (CGL)

           (i)      Runway lead in lighting (RLLS)

           (j)      Pilot activated lighting (PAL)

          (k)      T-Visual approach slope indicators (T-VASIS)

           (l)      Visual approach slope indicators (VASIS)

        (m)      Precision approach path indicators (PAPI).

37.78.6

Describe aerodrome beacons.

37.78.8

Describe the indication of above, on and below slope for:

          (a)      PAPIs

          (b)      VASIS

          (c)      T-VASIS.

 

 

 

Emergencies Incidents and Accidents

37.80

Responsibilities of Operators and Pilots

37.80.2

State the requirement for the notification of incidents. CAR 12

37.80.4

State the requirement for the notification of accidents. CAR 12

37.80.6

State the extent to which a pilot may deviate from the CA Act or rules in an emergency situation. CA Act 1990 S13A (2)

37.80.8

State the pilot action required following deviation from the CA Act or rules in an emergency situation. CA Act 1990 S13A (6)

37.82

Communications and Equipment

37.82.2

State the radio transmission applicable to a distress and urgency situation. AIP ENR

37.82.4

State the radio message required to impose silence during and emergency situation.

37.82.6

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate an emergency condition. AIP ENR

37.82.8

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate a loss of communications. AIP ENR

37.82.10

State the transponder code a pilot should set to indicate that the aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference. AIP ENR

37.82.12

Describe the means by which ATC will verify the transmission of an emergency SSR transponder code. AIP ENR

37.82.14

Describe the use of the speechless technique using unmodulated transmissions. AIP ENR

37.82.16

Describe and interpret ground-air visual signal codes. AIP GEN

37.82.18

Describe the procedures for directing a surface craft to a distress incident. AIP GEN

37.82.20

State the procedures for the emergency activation of an ELT. AIP GEN

37.82.22

State the pilot action required following the inadvertent transmission of an ELT. AIP GEN

37.82.24

State the requirements for the operational testing of an ELT. AIP GEN

37.82.26

State the procedures to be followed on receiving an ELT signal. AIP GEN

 

Instrument Departures and Approaches

37.90

Departure Procedures

37.90.2

Interpret information on SID and Departure Procedure charts.

37.90.4

Determine the IFR take-off minima for a departure off a given runway. AIP ENR

37.90.6

State the IFR take-off minima if it is not prescribed in the IFG. AIP ENR

37.90.8

State the CAR Part 91 requirements and limitations of IFR reduced take-off minima. CAR 91 & AIP ENR

37.90.10

State the minimum height for a turn after take-off on departure. AIP ENR

37.90.12

State the minimum climb gradient on a SID unless otherwise specified. AIP ENR

37.90.14

Calculate the rate of climb required to meet the net climb gradient specified on instrument departures. AIP ENR

37.90.16

State when a departure procedure terminates. AIP ENR

37.90.18

State the limitation on the termination of radar vectoring for a departing IFR aircraft. AIP ENR

37.90.20

State the requirements for broadcasting intentions when departing from an unattended aerodrome. AIP ENR

37.90.22

State the requirements for and limitations on a visual departure. AIP ENR

37.90.24

Describe the operating restrictions where an IFR departure procedure is not promulgated. AIP ENR

37.92

Holding Procedures

37.92.2

State the maximum entry and holding pattern speeds. AIP ENR

37.92.4

Identify and describe appropriate holding pattern entry procedures. AIP ENR

37.92.6

State when an onwards clearance time will be passed to the pilots of an aircraft instructed to hold en-route. AIP ENR

37.92.8

State when an expected approach time will be passed to the pilots of an aircraft instructed to hold at an initial approach fix. AIP ENR

37.92.10

State the angle of bank required during turns in a holding pattern. AIP ENR

37.94

Approach Procedures

37.94.2

Describe the descent limitations from cruise to approach commencement. AIP GEN

37.94.4

Interpret information on STAR charts. AIP GEN

37.94.6

State the limitations on a clearance to fly a STAR. AIP ENR

37.94.8

Define the minimum initial approach altitude. AIP ENR

37.94.10

Interpret information on instrument approach charts.

37.94.12

Determine the IFR meteorological minima for an instrument approach to a given runway.

37.94.14

State the meteorological minima which must exist prior to an instrument approach being commenced. CAR 91 and AIP ENR

37.94.16

Describe the procedures for joining overhead a navigation aid for an instrument approach. AIP ENR

37.94.18

State the minimum meteorological conditions which must exist before ATC may clear an aircraft for an instrument approach with a descent restriction. AIP ENR

37.94.20

State the meteorological and other conditions which will allow a pilot to request a visual approach in controlled airspace. AIP ENR

37.94.22

State the meteorological and other conditions which allow ATC to advise that conditions are suitable for a visual approach. AIP ENR

37.94.24

State the meteorological and other conditions which will allow a pilot to carry out a visual approach in uncontrolled airspace. AIP ENR

37.94.26

Describe the provision of traffic separation and terrain clearance during a visual approach. AIP ENR

37.94.28

State the aircraft category for approach speeds and minima for helicopters. AIP ENR

37.94.30

State the category A speed limitations during an instrument approach under ICAO PANS OPS II procedures. AIP ENR

37.94.32

State the requirements for making position reports during an instrument approach in controlled and uncontrolled airspace. AIP ENR

37.94.34

Describe the procedures for carrying out an instrument approach at an unattended aerodrome. AIP ENR

37.94.36

Determine the minimum descent altitude using a QNH from a remote location. AIP ENR

37.94.38

State when descent below decision altitude or minimum descent altitude may be made on an instrument approach. AIP ENR

37.94.40

Describe the missed approach procedures and limitations. AIP ENR

37.96

Communications and Navigation Aid Failure

37.96.2

Describe the procedures required following a communications failure en-route. AIP ENR

37.96.4

Describe the procedures required following a communications failure during an instrument approach. AIP ENR

37.96.6

Describe the procedure to be carried out in the event of a radio navigation aid failure during an approach. AIP ENR

37.96.8

State the requirements for changing approach types in the event of a radio navigation aid failure during an approach. AIP ENR

Flight Navigation Syllabus Matrix

 

 

Topic No.

PPL

CPL

IR

ATPL

 

 

 

6

18

54

38

Fundamentals of Air Navigation

Form of the Earth

2

 

 

Direction on the Earth

4

 

 

Distance on the Earth

6

 

 

Speed/Velocity

8

 

 

Position Referencing

10

 

 

Altimetry

12

 

 

Principles and Terminology

14

 

 

 

 

Time

16

 

 

Twilight

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aeronautical charts

Properties and Principles

22

 

Scale

24

 

 

 

 

Chart Reading

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Circular Slide Rule

Computations

28

 

 

Relative velocity

30

 

 

 

 

Wind Components

32

 

 

 

 

Triangle of Velocities

34

 

 

 

1:60 Rule

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deduced Reckoning

In Flight Revisions

38

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flight Planning

Route Selection

40

 

 

Chart Preparation

42

 

 

 

Plan Preparation

44

 

 

Fuel Planning

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navigation Procedures - VFR

VFR Flight Navigation

48

 

 

 

Special Procedures

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navigation Procedures - IFR

Properties and Principles

52

 

 

 

 

Chart Plotting

54

 

 

 

Chart reading

56

 

 

 

 

Enroute Diversion Calculation

58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flight Management

Flight Management

60

 

 

 

 

Fuel Management

62

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radio Aids

ADF

64

 

 

 

 

VOR

66

 

 

 

 

DME

68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GNSS

Global Navigation Satellite System

70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radar

Procedures

72

 

 

 

Subject No. 38        Flight Navigation General (Aeroplane & Helicopter)

NOTE: This syllabus is primarily based on regional/oceanic/global IFR navigation as applicable to navigating a multi engine turbine air transport type aeroplane or IFR capable turbine Helicopter.

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate. These reference numbers are common across the subject levels and therefore may not be consecutive.

This syllabus presupposes a knowledge and understanding already attained at PPL/CPL/IR level.

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

Fundamentals of Air Navigation

38.2

Form of the Earth

38.2.2

Define:

 

          (a)      great circles

 

          (b)      small circles

 

          (c)      rhumb lines

 

          (d)      the equator

 

          (e)      parallels of latitude

 

           (f)      meridians of longitude

 

          (g)      Greenwich (Prime) Meridian

 

          (h)      the International Date Line

38.4

Direction on the Earth

38.4.2

Define, with reference to navigation at higher latitudes and polar areas:

 

          (a)      magnetic pole

 

          (b)      true north

 

          (c)      magnetic north

 

          (d)      compass north

38.4.4

When deriving track distances and bearings from a chart, with particular reference to navigation at higher latitudes and polar areas, explain:

 

(a)    processes

 

(b)    cautions

 

(c)    limitations

38.6

Distance on the Earth

38.6.2

Define units of distance used on aviation charts and the basis for these units.

38.6.4

Explain the distance calculation basis used by GNSS and FMC systems.

38.6.6

Determine distances (± 3nm) on an appropriate Oceanic FIR chart (ENRC).

38.8

Speed and velocity

38.8.2

State the frame of reference for speed measurement provided by a GNSS and inertial systems.

38.8.4

Calculate the groundspeed to make good a specified position at a specified time.

38.10

Position Referencing

38.10.2

Describe the grid system position reference method.

38.10.4

Describe the reference system used by a GNSS navigation system.

38.10.6

Plot and reference a position (± 3nm) on appropriate Oceanic FIR chart (ENRC).

38.16

Time

38.16.8

Explain the relationship between time and longitude.

38.16.10

Convert between arc and time.

 

Aeronautical Charts

38.22

Properties and Principles

38.22.2

Describe the construction, properties, uses and limitations of:

 

          (a)      a Mercator projection

 

          (b)      a Lambert’s conformal projection

 

          (c)      a Polar Stereographic projection

38.22.4

Describe orthomorphism.

38.22.6

State the properties that a chart must possess to be considered orthomorphic.

38.22.8

Explain earth and chart convergence.

38.22.10

Describe the relationship between a change in longitude and distance at a given latitude (departure).

38.22.12

Calculate the distance between two longitudes, at a given latitude.

38.22.14

Describe the position of a great circle track relative to the rhumb line track between two points.

38.24

Scale

38.24.2

Define chart scale.

38.24.4

Calculate earth distance, given scale and chart distance.

38.24.6

Calculate chart distance, given scale and earth distance.

38.24.8

Calculate chart scale, given earth distance and chart distance.

38.26

Chart Reading

38.26.2

Interpret the features and symbols of appropriate aeronautical charts.

38.26.4

Derive navigation information from appropriate aeronautical charts.

 

Navigation Calculations

38.28

Computations

38.28.2

Derive TAS, given a Compressibility Correction Table, CAS, pressure altitude/flight level and air temperature in degrees Celsius.

 

Calculate the equivalent still air distance, given total distance, mean TAS and mean wind component.

38.30

Relative Velocity

38.30.2

Calculate the closing/opening speeds of two aircraft on the same track.

38.30.4

Calculate the distance between two aircraft when they are 10 minutes apart on the same track.

38.30.6

Calculate the time that two aircraft will be 10 minutes apart on the same track.

38.30.8

Calculate the position of an aircraft along track when a following aircraft is 10 minutes behind it on the same track.

38.30.10

Calculate the time of passing of two aircraft on the same track, given relative positions and speeds.

38.30.12

Define a line of constant bearing.

38.30.14

Calculate the distance two aircraft on diverging/converging tracks are apart at a given time.

38.30.16

Calculate the true, magnetic or relative bearing between two aircraft on diverging/converging tracks at a given time.

38.30.18

Determine whether the relative bearing between two aircraft on diverging/converging tracks will remain constant.

 

Navigation Procedures - IFR

38.54

Plotting

38.54.2

Plot and measure the initial great circle track between two points on an appropriate Oceanic FIR chart (ENRC), in:

 

(a)    true

 

(b)    magnetic

 

38.58

 

Enroute Diversion Calculations

38.58.2

Calculate, considering normal operations, depressurised and engine out scenarios:

 

          (a)      time and distance to the PNR

 

          (b)      time and distance to the ETP between two aerodromes on a track

 

          (c)      time and distance to the ETP between two aerodromes, one or both of which are not on track

 

          (d)      time and distance to the ETP between two aerodromes, given multiple legs with separate wind components.

38.58.4

State the flight profile (speed) required to achieve a PNR that is furthest from the departure aerodrome.

38.58.6

Describe the effect of headwind/tailwind on the position of the PNR from the departure aerodrome.

38.58.8

Describe the effect of headwind/tailwind on the position of the ETP between the departure and destination aerodrome.

Subject No. 40       Flight Planning (Aeroplane)

NOTE: This syllabus is based on Flight Planning for an oceanic IFR flight for a multi engine turbine air transport type aeroplane.

Assessment of this syllabus will be predominantly based on the specific published ‘representative’ aircraft performance data and appropriate computer generated flight plans. However when required, instruction and assessment should be based on generic or other type specific data.

Appropriate preliminary information is defined as that information contained in the published data pack or that information embedded into individual assessment questions e.g. flight plan components, weather data, additional performance or related ‘fuel policy’ data.

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate. These reference numbers can be common across the subject levels and therefore may not be consecutive.

This syllabus assumes a knowledge and understanding already attained at:

  • PPL and CPL syllabus level
  • Instrument rating (IR) Flight Navigation syllabus level
  • Basic Turbine Knowledge syllabus level.

Any item containing components existing in another syllabus indicates a higher level of understanding is required and/or the advanced practical application of the item is to be considered.

 

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

Flight Planning Concepts

40.2

Definitions

40.2.2

Define and explain the use of the following terms in the correct context (include appropriate fuel reserves where applicable):

 

          (a)      inflight revised point of safe return (revised PSR)

 

          (b)      PNR factor

 

          (c)      equi-time point (ETP)

 

          (d)      diversion decision point (DDP)

 

          (e)      extended diversion time operations (EDTO)

 

           (f)      performance deterioration allowance (PDA)

 

          (g)      contingency fuel

 

          (h)      point of safe return (PSR)

 

           (i)      ISA and temperature deviation (e.g. ISA +10)

40.4

Extended Diversion Time Operations (EDTO)

40.4.2

Explain the concept of EDTO.

40.4.4

Describe the aircraft requirements for EDTO.

40.4.6

Explain the route and aerodrome requirements applicable to EDTO.

40.4.8

Explain the critical fuel requirements for EDTO.

40.4.10

Describe the engine failure descent options (Terrain/Fuel critical drift down and Standard drift down) and explain when/why they would be used.

 

Flight Planning

NOTE: This syllabus requires an understanding of both the ground flight planning phase and the inflight use of a CFP (computer generated flight plan) including the management of inflight planning contingencies.

40.8

Cruise

40.8.2

Define:

 

          (a)      MOCA

 

          (b)      route MORA

 

          (c)      grid MORA

40.8.4

Explain the term safety height (SH) as shown on a flight plan.

40.14

Fuel

40.14.2

Given appropriate preliminary information, including ZFW and mid-hold weight as applicable, use representative aircraft data to determine:

 

          (a)      sector fuel consumption

 

          (b)      hold and approach consumption

 

          (c)      total flight fuel consumption

 

          (d)      alternate and reserve fuel requirements

 

          (e)      contingency fuel

 

           (f)      total ramp fuel required for departure

40.18

Return Points

40.18.2

Given appropriate preliminary information, use representative aircraft data (include appropriate final reserves where applicable) to determine the inflight revised point of safe return (revised PSR).

40.20

Diversion decision point

40.20.2

Explain for a DDP flight plan, its:

 

(a)    identification

 

(b)    function

 

(c)    application

40.22

Flight data extraction

40.22.2

Given a computer-generated flight plan and representative aircraft data, obtain the following:

 

          (a)      navigation data base validity

 

          (b)      type of plan (e.g. standard, EDTO, DDP etc)

 

          (c)      planned type of cruise profile (e.g. CI/high speed/low level etc)

 

          (d)      planned initial cruise level

 

          (e)      planned time/distance/fuel to the initial cruise level

           (f)      sector times and distances

 

          (g)      planned step-climb points

 

          (h)      planned EET between any enroute waypoint pairs

 

           (i)      planned ground speeds and Mach numbers

 

           (j)      planned waypoint and sector wind/temp

 

          (k)      planned EET to destination

 

           (l)      planned AUW at any enroute waypoint and at destination

 

        (m)      time/distance to planned ETPs

 

          (n)      minimum fuel required at planned ETPs

 

          (o)      estimated fuel available at planned ETPs

 

          (p)      plan fuel components not included in the fuel required (FUELRQ) figure

 

          (q)      identify any limiting weight factor (TOW, ZFW, or LDW)

 

           (r)      any specified EDTO enroute alternates as applicable

 

          (s)      airspace/FIR boundary points and what national airspace the aircraft is flying through

 

           (t)       sector safety height (SH)

40.22.4

Given a computer-generated flight plan and representative aircraft data, extract and interpret the information contained in the following flight plan blocks:

 

          (a)      route description

 

          (b)      fuel summary

 

          (c)      contingency summary

 

          (d)      critical fuel summary

 

          (e)      alternate summary

 

           (f)      time/fuel summaries for ZFW change

40.22.6

Given a computer-generated flight plan and representative aircraft data, obtain any of the following based on specified appropriate in-flight time, weight, and fuel performance information:

 

          (a)      estimated time/distance/fuel to the initial cruise level (TOC)

 

          (b)      ETA for planned step-climb points

 

          (c)      ETA at any enroute waypoint

 

          (d)      ETA at destination

 

          (e)      estimated AUW at any waypoint, and at destination

 

           (f)      estimated time/distance to ETPs

 

          (g)      estimated minimum fuel required at ETPs

40.22.8

Given a computer-generated flight plan and appropriate in-flight times, weight, and fuel performance information extract the planned and actual:

 

          (a)      average fuel flow for each phase of the flight

 

          (b)      fuel used to an enroute waypoint

 

          (c)      fuel required from a waypoint to destination

 

          (d)      contingency fuel status

 

          (e)      DDP fuel status

 

           (f)      the availability of extra holding fuel

 

          (g)      diversion fuel status

 

          (h)      minimum reserve fuel status

 

           (i)      critical ETP fuel status

 

           (j)      total fuel required

 

          (k)      landing weight status

 

Revision Calculations

40.24

Revised ETP calculations

40.24.2

Given a computer-generated flight plan, representative aircraft data and appropriate in-flight time, weight, and fuel performance information, calculate the following:

 

          (a)      ETP for a revised enroute alternate pair

 

          (b)      ETP fuel/time to a revised ETP enroute alternate pair

40.26

Revised alternate, flight level and speed calculations

40.26.2

Given a computer-generated flight plan, representative aircraft data and appropriate in-flight time, weight, and fuel performance information, derive the following:

 

          (a)      fuel required for a revised destination alternate

 

          (b)      time/fuel required for a lower level flight

 

          (c)      time/fuel required for a high or low speed flight

 

          (d)      time/fuel required for an increased hold requirement at the destination

Meteorology Syllabus Matrix

 

 

Topic No.

PPL

CPL

ATPL

 

 

 

8

20

42

Meteorological services reports and forecasts

Domestic services, reports and forecasts

2

*

 

 

 

Regional services, reports and forecasts

2

 

*

 

 

International services, reports and forecasts

2

 

 

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weather maps

Interpretation of weather maps and charts

4

*

*

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fundamentals of the Atmosphere

The atmosphere

6

*

*

*

 

Temperature and heat exchange processes

8

*

*

*

 

Pressure and density

10

*

*

*

 

Wind

12

*

*

*

 

Local winds

14

*

*

 

 

Water vapour

16

*

*

*

 

Atmospheric stability

18

*

*

*

 

Inversions

20

*

 

 

 

Clouds

22

*

*

*

 

Precipitation

24

*

*

 

 

Visibility and fog

26

*

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meteorological conditions

Aircraft icing

28

*

*

*

 

Thunderstorms

30

*

*

*

 

Mountain weather

32

*

 

 

 

Anticyclones

34

 

*

 

 

Air masses, fronts and depressions

36

*

*

*

 

Upper air meteorology

38

 

 

*

 

Turbulence

40

*

*

*

 

Other hazardous meteorological conditions

42

 

*

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Zealand weather

New Zealand weather

44

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional and global meteorology

The general circulation

46

 

*

*

 

Tropical meteorology

48

 

*

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

Satellite, radar and non-aviation-specific weather information

Satellite, radar and non-aviation specific weather information

50

*

*

*

 

Domestic meteorological services reports and forecasts

52

*

 

 

 

Subject No. 42        ATPL Meteorology

NOTE: This syllabus is principally based on regional/oceanic/global IFR applicable meteorology appropriate to navigating a multi engine turbine air transport type aeroplane or IFR capable turbine helicopter operating at all altitudes.

Detailed acronyms and service provider titles (e.g. ETOPS, OPMET) are constantly changing and thus are indicative of the area of knowledge required and do not limit this syllabus to those specifically listed.

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate. These reference numbers are common across the subject levels and therefore may not be consecutive.

This syllabus presupposes a thorough knowledge and understanding of the PPL and CPL Meteorology syllabus. Any item repeated here indicates a higher level of understanding or a wider scope is required.

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

42.2       International Meteorological Services, Reports and Forecasts

42.2.2    Briefly explain the purpose of and the types of meteorological information available to international aviation through the:

World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

  • (a) World Area Forecast System (WAFS)
  • (b) Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAAC)
  • (c) Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC).

42.2.4    For international operations, interpret information contained in all the available meteorological services, reports and forecasts, including:

  • (a) route forecasts
  • (b) OPMET (TAF, VOLMET, METAR/SPECI, METAR AUTO, TREND, SIGMET, VAA, AIREP).

42.2.6    For international operations, assess the impact of information contained in the services, reports and forecasts at 42.2.4.

42.2.8    With reference to a given ROFOR:

  • (a) determine the route to which the forecast applies
  • (b) determine the issue and validity times of the ROFOR in relation to ETD and ETA
  • (c) interpolate the wind velocity and temperature to any height and location within the forecast data provided in a ROFOR.

42.2.10   With respect to WIND/TEMP forecast charts:

  • (a) identify the issue time and validity time
  • (b) identify the office issuing the chart
  • (c) identify the Flight Level of the chart
  • (d) identify and assess the impact of wind and temperature information contained in the chart.

42.2.12   Describe the phenomenon known as soft hail (also known as graupel or snow pellets.

42.2.14   With respect to medium-level and high-level SIGWX charts:

  • (a) identify the issue time and validity period
  • (b) identify the office issuing the chart
  • (c) determine the height range covered by the chart
  • (d) state the meaning of all the meteorological symbols on the chart.

42.2.16   With respect to medium and high-level SIGWX charts, interpret and assess information related to significant areas of:

  • (e) cloudiness
  • (a) tropical cyclones
  • (b) jet-streams
  • (c) clear-air turbulence
  • (d) icing
  • (e) volcanic eruptions
  • (f) tropopause height.

42.4       Weather Maps

42.4.2    For international operations, interpret, and assess the impact of information contained in surface synoptic charts (where available around the globe).

42.4.4    Describe what is meant by ‘streamline analysis.’

42.4.6    State the reason why ‘streamline analysis’ is necessary at tropical latitudes.

42.4.8    Interpret basic streamline patterns commonly shown on streamline charts (e.g. inflows, outflows etc).

42.6       The Atmosphere

42.6.2    With respect to the tropopause:

  • (a) describe the idealised global tropopause detailing approximate altitudes and the position of jet-streams
  • (b) explain why the height of the tropopause varies with latitude and season.

42.6.4    Explain why the stratosphere is generally devoid of cloud and turbulence.

42.8       Temperature and Heat Exchange Processes

42.8.2    Describe the following units of temperature:

  • (a) Celsius
  • (b) Fahrenheit
  • (c) absolute (Kelvin).

42.8.4     Convert between Celsius, Fahrenheit and absolute temperatures.

42.8.6    Explain what is meant by the terms ‘solar radiation’ and ‘terrestrial radiation’.

42.8.8    State the wave-length of ‘solar radiation’ and ‘terrestrial radiation’.

42.8.10   Describe the effect of the following on the amount of solar radiation received at the surface of the earth:

  • (a) sun angle
  • (b) length of day
  • (c)

42.8.12   Define the terms:

  • (a) ‘solstice’
  • (b) ‘equinox’.

42.8.14   State the significance of:

  • (a) ‘solstice’
  • (b) ‘equinox’.

42.10     Pressure and Density

42.10.2   State the meteorological units of pressure used in:

  • (a) Australia
  • (b)

42.10.4   Demonstrate the effect of flying at a constant indicated altitude from a cold region to a warm region, during which the surface pressure does not change.

42.10.6   State the difference between:

  • (a) ISA
  • (b) jet standard atmosphere.

42.10.8   Convert ISA temperature at altitude to °C ambient and vice versa.

42.12     Wind

42.12.2   Describe the basic concepts expressed in the horizontal component of the Coriolis force formula.

42.12.4   Describe the development of the geostrophic wind balance in both hemispheres.

42.12.6   Describe the development of the gradient wind balance in both hemispheres.

42.12.8   Given equal spacing between isobars, explain why the wind speed is stronger around an anticyclone (high) than around a depression (low).

42.12.10           Demonstrate the effects of friction on surface wind in both hemispheres.

42.12.12           For both hemispheres:

  • (a) describe the typical diurnal variation of surface wind
  • (b) state the change in wind velocity when climbing out of, or descending into, the friction layer.

42.16     Water Vapour

42.16.2   Interpret a graph of saturation water vapour content against temperature, and calculate dew point and relative humidity from the graph.

42.18     Atmospheric Stability

42.18.2   Given the MSL temperature on the windward side of a mountain range, cloud base heights to windward and leeward of the range, and mountain range height (AMSL), determine:

  • (a) if it is raining on the windward side of the range
  • (b) the temperature at the cloud bases (to windward and leeward of the ranges)
  • (c) the temperature at mountain top
  • (d) the temperature at MSL on the lee side of the range.

42.18.4   Explain why the SALR steepens with increasing height and increasing latitude.

42.22     Cloud

42.22.2   Describe the effect of latent heat release on stability inside a cloud and its influence on the resulting cloud type.

42.22.4   With regard to orographically developed cloud:

  • (a) explain the influence of stability/instability and different surface dew point values on the type and vertical extent of any cloud formed
  • (b) describe the formation and characteristics of lenticular cloud.

42.28     Aircraft Icing

42.28.2   Explain the following processes:

  • (a) deposition
  • (b)

42.28.4   Explain what happens when an aircraft collides with ‘super-cooled water droplets’ (SCWD).

42.28.6   Describe the ‘freezing rain’ formation process.

42.28.8   State the areas of the globe where freezing rain is most likely to be encountered.

42.28.10           Identify the symbols used to indicate:

  • (a) light icing
  • (b) moderate icing
  • (c) severe icing.

42.30     Thunderstorms

42.30.2   Explain the importance of latent heat in the development of thunderstorms.

42.30.4   Describe the effect of entrainment of drier air aloft on the development of thunderstorms.

42.30.6   Describe the processes involved in the development of lightning.

42.30.8   Describe the following hazards associated with flight in and around thunderstorms:

  • (a) turbulence
  • (b) gusts and squalls
  • (c) icing
  • (d) lightning
  • (e) hail
  • (f) poor visibility
  • (g) tornadoes
  • (h) microbursts
  • (i) first gust (or gust front)
  • (j) noise
  • (k) loss of instruments and impairment of accuracy.

42.30.10           Describe the characteristics of super-cell thunderstorms.

42.36     Fronts and Depressions

42.36.2   Explain what is meant by air-mass modification.

42.36.4   Describe the following factors associated with either ‘cold air advection’ or ‘warm air advection’:

  • (a) stability
  • (b) cloud types
  • (c) likely precipitation
  • (d) visibility reductions
  • (e)

42.36.6   Describe the concepts of convergence and divergence.

42.36.8   Explain the vertical motions generated by convergence and divergence near the earth’s surface and immediately beneath the tropopause.

42.36.10           Explain the concept of vorticity (rotation or spin).

42.36.12          Explain how convergence drives an increase in vorticity through conservation of angular momentum.

42.36.14           Outline the effect of vorticity advection on the development of mid-latitude pressure systems.

42.36.16           With respect to depressions of the Southern Hemisphere outside the tropics, describe the development and associated cloud of the:

  • (a) mid to high-latitude depression, where upper-level divergence dominates the formation process
  • (b) sub-tropical depression, where advection of warm moist air and latent heat release dominate the formation process.

42.36.18           Describe the effect of the following on the intensity of fronts, and on the extent of cloud and precipitation:

  • (a) amount of moisture in the warm rising air
  • (b) stability or instability of the rising air
  • (c) the slope of the frontal surface
  • (d) the speed of the front
  • (e) the temperature contrast across the front.

42.36.20           Describe the sequence of events during the passage of an idealised cold front and warm front (or warm sector) in both hemispheres, in terms of:

  • (a) pressure changes
  • (b) temperature changes
  • (c) cloud
  • (d) precipitation
  • (e) visibility
  • (f) dew point changes.

42.36.22           Explain the concept of an occluded front.

42.38     Upper Air Meteorology

42.38.2   Define:

  • (a) height contour
  • (b)

42.38.4   Describe the use of height contour charts in the forecasting of upper winds.

42.38.6   State the information that can be obtained from spacing and orientation of height contour lines.

42.38.8   Outline the definition of the ‘thermal wind’.

42.38.10           Outline how wind at higher altitudes is a vector sum of the lower level wind and the thermal wind through the layer.

42.38.12           Explain why the wind at progressively higher altitudes in mid-latitudes tends to become stronger, and more westerly.

42.38.14           Define ‘jet-stream’.

42.38.16           Describe the structure of a jet-stream including the occurrence of wind shear and turbulence.

42.38.18           Identify the four principal jet-streams found globally within the troposphere.

42.38.20           With regard to the Southern Hemisphere polar jet-stream, describe its:

  • (a) connection to low-level fronts and thermal gradients
  • (b) location relative to the frontal interface
  • (c) typical altitude
  • (d) variations in intensity and latitude from winter to summer
  • (e) probable areas for turbulence.

42.38.22           With regard to the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropical jet-stream, describe its:

  • (a) disconnection from low-level fronts
  • (b) location relative to the fractured tropopause
  • (c) typical altitude
  • (d) variations in intensity and latitude from winter to summer
  • (e) probable areas for turbulence.

42.38.24           Explain where and why cirrus cloud is likely to form in relation to a jet-stream.

42.38.26           Explain the characteristic ‘tilt’ with height of developing mid-latitude depressions and anticyclones.

42.38.28           Describe how mountain waves can combine with jet-streams to generate severe clear air turbulence.

42.38.30           Describe how a pilot can anticipate the location and altitude of jet-streams.

42.38.32           Explain the tell-tale signs that are often present in flight to indicate a jet-stream.

42.40     Turbulence

42.40.2   Define clear air turbulence (CAT).

42.40.4   State the difference between turbulence and up/down draughts.

42.42     Other Hazardous Meteorological Conditions

42.42.2   Describe the effects of volcanic ash on aircraft operations.

42.42.6   Explain the development of visual-illusion type whiteout and sector whiteout.

42.42.8   Describe the hazards of flight in whiteout conditions.  

 

42.46     The General Circulation

42.46.2   State the dominant factors that control the transfer of heat around the globe.

42.46.4   Explain what is meant by:

  • (a) ‘zonal index’
  • (b) ‘zonal winds’.

42.46.6   Describe:

  • (a) ‘high zonal index’
  • (b) ‘low zonal index’.

42.46.8   State how ‘high’ zonal index’ and ‘low zonal index’ relate to the:

  • (a) speed and direction of low tropospheric weather systems
  • (b) strength and uniformity of upper-level westerlies and jet-streams.

42.46.10 Define the terms:

  • (a) long atmospheric waves
  • (b) medium atmospheric waves
  • (c) short atmospheric waves.

42.46.12           Describe what is meant by the terms:

  • (a) ‘cold pool’
  • (b) ‘warm pool’.

42.46.14 Describe the characteristics of:

  • (a) maritime climates
  • (b) continental climates.

42.48     Tropical Meteorology

42.48.2   Explain what is meant by:

  • (a) equatorial trough (meteorological – or thermal – equator)
  • (b) inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
  • (c) South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ).

42.48.4   Relative to the equatorial trough, state the region where the following occurs:

  • (a) maximum convergence
  • (b) maximum convection
  • (c) maximum cloud development.

42.48.6   Describe the following features commonly associated with an ‘active’ or an ‘inactive’ ITCZ:

  • (a) weather
  • (b) icing
  • (c) turbulence
  • (d) cloud-related factors.

42.48.8   Describe the preferred location and characteristics of the South Pacific Converge Zone.

42.48.10           Interpret a simplified diagram of the tropical Hadley Cell showing the pattern of horizontal mixing in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres.

42.48.12           Use diagrams to explain the following aspects of the ‘Trade Winds’ in both hemispheres of the Pacific Ocean:

  • (a) typical horizontal wind directions at low, middle, and upper levels
  • (b) anticyclonic subsidence and associated meteorological conditions
  • (c) approximate latitudinal and vertical limits
  • (d) seasonal changes in location and their effect on wind direction
  • (e) typical wind strengths, including variation from summer to winter
  • (f) the effect of the trade winds on the weather experienced in island groups and northern Australia.

42.48.14           Outline how tropical convection can occur as individual convective cells or as organised clusters.

42.48.16           Describe the factors involved in wet monsoons in terms of:

  • (a) seasonal factors
  • (b) effect of large land masses and orographic obstructions
  • (c) the location of the major monsoon regions.

42.48.18           State the global basins where the following form:

  • (a) tropical cyclones
  • (b) typhoons
  • (c)

42.48.20           With regard to the formation, development and decay of tropical cyclones, describe the:

  • (a) relationship with the equatorial trough and/or the SPCZ
  • (b) requirement for, and supply of, sensible and latent heat
  • (c) effect of upper-level divergence
  • (d) characteristics of the cyclone ‘eye’
  • (e) requirement for a ‘warm core’.

42.48.22           State the stages of development of tropical cyclones.

42.48.24           For each stage of development, describe the:

  • (a) atmospheric pressure tendency
  • (b) typical wind strengths, including variations in wind velocity in, and either side of, the cyclone eye
  • (c) typical radii of the affected areas
  • (d) associated weather, and the location of the most severe conditions.

42.48.26           Describe the mechanisms for the decay of tropical cyclones.

42.48.28           State the season during which tropical cyclones are generally experienced.

42.48.30           Describe the Walker Cell in the South Pacific ocean.

42.48.32           Define the ENSO index.

42.48.34           Outline the characteristics of positive (La Niña) and negative (El Niño) phases of the ENSO index, including the effect on:

  • (a) prevailing winds in tropical and mid-latitude regions
  • (b) meteorological conditions in Australasia.

42.50     Satellite and Radar Imagery

42.50.2   Describe how infra-red and visible satellite imagery can be used together to provide information on the:

  • (a) areal extent of cloud
  • (b) height of the cloud top
  • (c) types of cloud
  • (d) movement of cloud
  • (e) likely weather within the area of coverage of the satellite.

42.50.4   For international operations interpret and assess the impact of given examples of satellite imagery.

42.50.6   Describe how, within the coverage of the radar(s), radar imagery can be used to provide information on:

  • (a) the areal extent of precipitation
  • (b) intensity of precipitation
  • (c) movement of precipitation
  • (d) duration of precipitation.

42.50.8   For international operations interpret and assess the impact of given examples of radar imagery.

Subject No. 44        Instruments and Navigation Aids (Aeroplane)

NOTE: This syllabus is based on a multi engine turbine air transport type aeroplane.

The instruments and navigation aid items within this subject are those typically found in an airline-operated air-transport type aeroplane.

Assessment of this syllabus will include, but not be limited to, specific approved ‘representative’ aircraft

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate.

This syllabus presupposes a knowledge and understanding already attained at instrument rating level.

 

Air Data Instruments

 

44.2

Machmeter

 

44.2.2

Define Mach number and associated computational formulae.

 

44.2.4

Explain the principle of operation of a Machmeter.

 

44.2.6

Explain the following errors affecting a Machmeter:

          (a)      instrument

          (b)      position (pressure) error and

          (c)      lag

 

44.2.8

Explain the following for blockages and leaks on the Machmeter:

 

 

 

(a)    symptoms

 

 

 

(b)    effects

 

 

 

(c)    possible remedies

 

44.4

Air data computer (ADC)

 

44.4.2

State the purpose of the air data computer.

 

44.4.4

Explain the operating principle of the air data computer.

 

44.4.6

Describe the inputs, outputs and the supplied units of a digital ADC.

 

44.4.8

Explain the backup functions of the air data computer in the case of a pressure source blockage.

 

44.6

Air temperature gauge

 

44.6.2

Explain the principle of operation of an air temperature probe.

 

44.6.4

Define the following temperatures:

          (a)      Total Air Temperature (TAT)

          (b)      Static Air Temperature (SAT)

          (c)      Outside Air Temperature (OAT).

 

44.6.6

Compare the following temperatures:

          (a)      Total Air Temperature (TAT)

          (b)      Static Air Temperature (SAT)

          (c)      Outside Air Temperature (OAT)

 

44.6.8

Calculate the SAT, given indicated OAT, probe recovery factor and Mach number.

 

44.6.10

Calculate SAT given TAT and Mach number.

 

 

Integrated Flight Instrument Systems

 

 

44.8

Auto flight systems

 

44.8.2

Describe the function of a:

          (a)      Flight Director (FD) system

          (b)      Automatic Flight Control system (AFCS)

44.8.4

Interpret the information provided by the split cue and integrated cue flight director command bars.

 

44.8.6

Explain the function of the flight mode annunciator.

 

 

44.8.8

Explain the operating principle of a:

          (a)      Flight Director system

          (b)      Automatic Flight Control system

 

44.8.10

Explain the use of the AFCS control panel.

 

44.8.12

Explain the operational modes available on an AFCS.

 

44.8.14

For an AFCS, describe the associated:

          (a)      inputs

          (b)      controls

          (c)      indications

          (d)      warnings

 

44.8.16

Explain the principle of operation of an autoland system.

 

44.8.18

Explain the meaning of:

          (a)      fail operational

          (b)      fail passive

          (c)      alert height

 

44.8.20

Explain the autoland systems component failure management.

 

44.8.22

Explain the principle of operation of flight envelope protection.

 

44.8.24

For a flight envelope protection installation, describe the associated:

          (a)      inputs

          (b)      indications

          (c)      warnings

 

44.8.26

Describe the function of the automatic trim system.

44.10

Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)

 

44.10.2

Explain the operating principle of the EFIS.

 

44.10.4

Describe the inputs available to a typical EFIS.

 

44.10.6

Describe the outputs from a typical EFIS.

 

44.10.8

State the function and describe the operation of the EFIS control panel.

 

44.10.10

Describe the switching options in case of EFIS display failure.

 

44.10.12

Describe the function of the Primary Flight Display (PFD).

 

44.10.14

Identify the information available on the PFD.

 

44.10.16

Describe the colour coding on the PFD.

 

44.10.18

Describe the function of the Navigation Display (ND).

 

44.10.20

Name the typical display modes for ND.

 

44.10.22

Given suitable diagrams of instrument presentation, use a ND to determine an aircraft’s track, position and/or orientation.

 

44.10.24

Given suitable diagrams identify the information available in the different modes of the ND.

 

44.10.26

Describe the colour coding on a typical ND.

 

44.10.28

Explain the operating principle of a Head-Up-Display (HUD).

 

44.10.30

Describe the inputs available to a Head-Up-Display (HUD).

 

44.10.32

Identify the information on a Head-Up-Display (HUD).

 

44.10.34

Explain the operating principle of an Enhanced Vision System.

 

44.10.36

Explain the operating principle of a Synthetic Vision System.

 

44.12

Electronic engine displays (ECAM, EICAS)

 

44.12.2

Explain the purpose of the Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

 

44.12.4

Explain the purpose of the Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) system.

 

44.12.6

Describe the information available from an ECAM/EICAS system.

 

44.12.8

Describe the display units (DU) of ECAM/EICAS System.

 

44.12.10

Interpret the primary colours used on the DUs.

 

44.12.12

State the redundancy provisions, in the case of a DU failure.

 

 

Warning Systems

 

44.14

Master warning system

 

44.14.2

Explain the function of a master warning system.

 

44.14.4

Explain the operating principle of a master warning system.

 

44.14.6

Explain the meaning of the following four degrees of urgency:

          (a)      warnings

          (b)      cautions

          (c)      advisories and

          (d)      status messages

 

44.14.8

Explain and give examples of:

          (a)      visual alerts

          (b)      aural alerts and

          (c)      tactile alerts

 

44.14.10

Describe the inhibiting of alerts during various phases of flight, including engine start, takeoff and landing.

 

44.16

Altitude alerter system

 

44.16.2

Explain the function of an altitude alerter system.

 

44.16.4

Describe how to operate the altitude alerter system and how to interpret the information.

 

44.18

Radio (Radar) altimeter

 

44.18.2

State the function of a radio altimeter (RA).

 

44.18.4

Explain the principle of operation of the radio altimeter.

 

44.18.6

State the purpose of the decision height indication.

 

44.18.8

State the range of RA indication.

 

44.18.10

List instruments or units which receive altitude information from the radio altimeter.

 

44.18.12

State the reason for a wide sweep of frequencies.

 

44.20

Terrain awareness warning system (TAWS)

 

44.20.2

Describe the function of the terrain awareness warning system.

 

44.20.4

Explain the principle of operation of TAWS.

 

44.20.8

Describe, in simple terms, the TAWS warning modes.

 

44.20.10

Explain the relationship between TAWS and EFIS navigation displays.

 

44.22

Aircraft collision avoidance system (ACAS)

 

44.22.2

Describe the function of the ACAS.

 

44.22.4

Explain the principle of operation of ACAS.

 

44.22.6

Identify the equipment with which an intruder must be fitted in order to be detected by ACAS.

 

44.22.8

Describe the appropriate ACAS graphic symbols.

 

44.22.10

Define a Resolution Advisory (RA) and a Traffic Advisory (TA).

 

44.22.12

State the minimum equipment requirements for the issuing of a Resolution Advisory and a Traffic Advisory.

 

44.22.14

Describe the proximity requirements for the issuing of a Resolution Advisory and a Traffic Advisory.

 

44.22.16

Describe ACAS “escape manoeuvres”.

 

44.24

Takeoff configuration warning system

 

44.24.2

Explain the purpose of a takeoff configuration warning system.

 

44.24.4

Explain the operating principle of a takeoff configuration warning system.

 

44.24.6

Give examples of configuration errors typically warned of.

 

44.26

Overspeed warning

 

44.26.2

Explain the function of the overspeed warning system.

 

44.26.4

Explain the principle of operation of an overspeed warning system.

 

44.26.6

Describe the warnings generated by the overspeed warning system and explain how these warnings can be cancelled.

 

44.28

Stall warning system

 

44.28.2

Describe the function of the stall warning system.

 

44.28.4

Explain the principle of operation of the stall warning system.

 

44.28.6

State the regulatory margin between stall and stall warning.

 

44.28.8

Identify the inputs of a stall warning system.

 

44.28.10

Describe the warnings and indications generated by the stall warning system and explain how these warnings can be cancelled.

 

44.28.12

State the purpose of pitch limit indicator bars.

 

44.30

Windshear warning system

 

44.30.2

Describe the function of the predictive windshear warning system.

 

44.30.4

Explain the principle of operation of a windshear warning system.

 

44.30.6

Identify the inputs of a windshear warning system.

 

44.30.8

Explain the limitations of the predictive windshear warning system.

 

 

 

 

Recorder Systems

 

44.32

Cockpit voice recorder

 

44.32.2

Explain the purpose of the cockpit voice recorder.

 

44.32.4

List the components of the cockpit voice recorder.

 

44.32.6

Explain how a cockpit voice recording is started and stopped.

 

44.32.8

Explain how recordings can be erased.

 

44.32.10

State the regulatory minimum recording time of the CVR in NZ.

 

44.34

Flight data recorder

 

44.34.2

Explain the purpose of the digital flight data recorder (FDR/DFDR).

 

44.34.4

Describe the parameters that are recorded by the flight data recorder.

 

44.34.6

Describe actions to be taken to preserve the CVR/FDR in the event of an incident/accident.

 

44.34.8

Describe how data from the flight maintenance recorder can be accessed.

 

44.34.10

State the regulatory minimum recording time of the DFDR in NZ.

 

 

Navigation Aids

 

44.36

Flight management system (FMS)

 

44.36.2

Describe the two primary functions of a FMS.

 

44.36.4

Describe the main components of an FMS.

 

44.36.6

Explain the operating principle of an FMS.

 

44.36.10

Explain how pilots interface with an FMS.

 

44.36.12

Describe the inputs the FMS accesses to achieve the navigation function.

 

44.36.14

Explain how the FMS achieves its performance functions in the various modes.

 

44.36.18

Explain how the flight guidance functions are achieved.

 

44.36.20

Describe how the FMS functions are monitored.

 

44.38

Ring laser gyro

 

44.38.2

Describe a ring laser gyro and compare it with a conventional gyro.

 

44.38.4

With the aid of a diagram, explain the principle of operation of a ring laser gyro.

 

44.40

Inertial reference system (IRS)

 

44.40.2

Explain the function and basic operating principle of an inertial reference system (IRS).

 

44.40.4

Describe the differences between a gyro stabilised platform and a strapdown system.

 

44.40.6

Explain the differences between an INS and an IRS.

 

44.40.8

Describe the inputs and output signals of an IRS.

 

44.40.10

Identify the components of an IRS.

 

44.40.12

Explain the conditions to be fulfilled when align mode is selected.

 

44.40.14

Explain the use of accelerometers in an IRS.

 

44.40.16

Describe how accelerations are integrated to derive velocity and distance.

 

44.40.18

State the advantages of a strapdown IRS over gyro stabilised INS.

 

44.40.20

Identify the types of gyro which are typically used for a strapdown system.

 

44.40.22

Explain how magnetic north is calculated.

 

44.40.24

Describe the limitations of a north referenced IRS in polar regions.

 

44.40.26

Describe the errors inherent in an IRS.

 

44.40.28

Explain the principle of position updating by reference to ground stations or GNSS.

 

44.42

Lateral (LNAV) and vertical (VNAV) navigation systems

 

44.42.2

Explain the purpose of the LNAV and VNAV components of a flight management system.

 

44.42.4

Explain the basic operating principles of LNAV and VNAV.

 

44.42.6

Describe the operating modes of LNAV and VNAV.

 

44.42.8

Describe the limitations of LNAV and VNAV.

 

 

FANS (CNS/ATM)

 

44.44

Communications

 

44.44.2

Explain the function and basic operating principle of each of the following:

          (a)      Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)

          (b)      Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC)

          (c)      Satellite Communications (SATCOM)

          (d)      Selective calling (SELCAL)

 

44.44.4

Describe limitations of each of the following:

          (a)      Aircraft Communications and Reporting System (ACARS)

          (b)      Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC)

          (c)      Satellite Communications (SATCOM)

 

44.46

Performance Based Navigation

 

44.46.2

Describe Performance Based Navigation (PBN).

 

44.46.4

Describe the following elements of PBN:

          (a)      The Navigation Specification

          (b)      The Navaid Infrastructure

          (c)      The Navigation Application

 

44.46.6

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      RNAV

          (b)      RNP

          (c)      AR

          (d)      ANP

          (e)      EPU

           (f)      Total System Error (TSE)

          (g)      LPV

          (h)      Fly-by waypoints

           (i)      Fly-over waypoints

           (j)      Track to fix (TF)

          (k)      Direct to fix (DF)

           (l)      Course to fix (CF)

        (m)      Radius to fix (RF)

 

44.46.8

Differentiate between RNAV and RNP navigation specifications.

 

44.46.10

Describe the following Navigation capability designations:

          (a)      Area Navigation (RNAV) airspace

          (b)      Required Navigation Performance (RNP-4) airspace

          (c)      Required Navigation Performance (RNP-10) airspace

          (d)      Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) airspace

          (e)      Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) airspace

           (f)      RNAV procedural (terminal) airspace

 

44.46.12

Describe the construction of a PBN containment area.

 

44.46.14

Explain where the various navigation specifications are applied.

 

44.46.16

Describe the various GNSS based RNAV augmentations systems.

 

44.46.18

Describe the GPS (GNSS) Landing System (GLS).

 

44.46.20

Describe the extent of Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.

 

44.46.22

Explain the requirements for operating in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) airspace.

 

44.46.24

Describe Strategic Lateral Off-Set Procedures (SLOP).

 

44.46.26

Explain the requirements for implementing Strategic Lateral Off-Set Procedures (SLOP) in airspace where this is permitted.

 

44.48

Surveillance

 

44.48.2

Explain the function of each of the following:

          (a)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B)

          (b)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C)

          (c)      Multilateration

 

44.48.4

Explain the basic operating principle of each of the following:

          (a)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B)

          (b)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C)

          (c)      Multilateration

 

44.48.6

Describe the inputs to and outputs of each of the following:

          (a)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B)

          (b)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C)

          (c)      Multilateration

 

44.48.8

Describe limitations of each of the following:

          (a)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B).

          (b)      Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C).

          (c)      Multilateration

 

               

 


 

Human Factors Matrix

   

Topic No.

PPL

CPL

ATPL

     

10

34

46

Human Factors - General

Airmanship and Responsibility

2

 

Human Factors Models and Programmes

4

           

Physiology and the Effects of Flight

The Atmosphere

6

 

Circulation and Respiratory Systems

8

 

Hypoxia

10

 

Hyperventilation

12

 

Entrapped Gases

14

 

Decompression Sickness

16

 

Vision and Visual Perception

18

 

Hearing and Balance

20

 

Spatial Orientation

22

 
 

Gravitational Forces

24

 
 

Motion Sickness

26

 
 

Flight Anxiety

28

 

Flying and Health

         
 

Fitness to Fly

30

 

Alcohol and Drugs

32

 

Blood Donation

34

 
 

Environmental Hazards

36

 

Stress Management

38

 

Sleep and Fatigue

40

 

Ageing

42

           

Aviation Psychology

Information Processing

44

 

Situational Awareness

46

 

Judgement and Decision Making

48

 

Social Psychology and Flight Deck Management

50

 

Threat and Error Management

52

 

Culture

54

           

Ergonomics

Flight Deck Design

56

 

 

Design of Controls

58

 

 

Instrumentation, Displays and Alerts

60

 

Documents and Procedures

62

           

First Aid and Survival

First Aid

64

 
 

Survival

66

 

 


Subject No 46          Human Factors

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on ‘knowledge deficiency reports’ and will provide valuable feed back to the examination candidate.

NOTE: This syllabus is based upon multi-crew operations.

This syllabus presupposes knowledge attained at PPL and CPL level.

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

Human Factors - General

46.2

Airmanship, professionalism and responsibility

46.2.2

Define professionalism.

46.2.4

Distinguish between piloting for personal reasons and for hire or reward.

46.2.6

Distinguish between safety, effectiveness and efficiency in terms of pilot responsibilities.

46.2.8

List the people to whom a pilot is responsible in carrying out his or her duties.

46.2.10

List the people to whom a co-pilot is responsible in carrying out his or her duties.

46.2.12

Describe key features of good and safe airmanship.

46.4

Human factors models and programmes

46.4.2

Define human factors as used in a professional aviation context.

46.4.4

Describe the fundamentals of the SHELL Model in relation to the interaction of humans with other humans, hardware, information sources, and the environment.

46.4.6

Explain the role of human factors programmes in promoting aviation safety in flight operations requiring an ATPL.

 

Physiology and the Effects of Flight

46.6

The atmosphere

46.6.2

Describe the variation of pressure as altitude increases.

46.6.4

Explain how the partial pressure of oxygen changes as altitude increases.

46.8

Circulation and respiratory systems

46.8.2

Describe the physiology of the respiratory system.

46.8.4

Describe the physiology of the circulatory system.

46.10

Hypoxia

46.10.2

State the partial pressure of oxygen both inside and outside the lungs at sea level.

46.10.4

Explain the mechanical effect of the partial pressure of oxygen on oxygen transfer in the lungs.

46.10.6

Explain the causes of hypoxia.

46.10.8

Describe the primary physiological and behavioural consequences of hypoxia for flight crew and passengers.

46.10.10

Describe the common symptoms of hypoxia.

46.10.12

Explain the reasons hypoxia symptoms are difficult to detect.

46.10.14

Explain the relationship between hypoxic onset and both vision and cognitive performance.

46.10.16

Describe how hypoxia can be prevented.

46.10.18

List the main factors influencing variation in hypoxia onset (tolerance) between individuals.

46.10.20

State the factors that affect the likelihood of suffering from hypoxia.

46.10.22

Describe how hypoxia can be treated.

46.10.24

Define the concept of ‘time of useful consciousness.

46.10.26

State the approximate time of useful consciousness at:

         (a)      18,000ft

         (b)      25,000ft

         (c)      35,000ft.

46.10.28

Explain oxygen paradox.

46.10.30

Describe the primary physiological effects of cabin pressurization loss at altitudes of 25,000ft and above.

46.10.32

List the key safety critical actions flight crew must take in the event of a high altitude cabin pressurization failure.

46.10.34

Identify the principle features of supplemental oxygen systems use to assist aircrew and passengers in the event of an in-flight pressurization emergency.

46.12

Hyperventilation

46.12.2

Describe the symptoms of hyperventilation.

46.12.4

Describe how hyperventilation can be treated.

46.14

Entrapped gasses

46.14.2

Explain the causes of barotrauma.

46.14.4

Describe the symptoms of barotrauma.

46.14.6

Describe the effects of barotrauma on various parts of the body.

46.14.8

Describe how barotrauma can be prevented.

46.14.10

Describe how barotrauma can be treated.

46.16

Decompression sickness

46.16.2

Explain the causes of decompression sickness.

46.16.4

Describe the symptoms of decompression sickness.

46.16.6

Explain how decompression sickness can be prevented.

46.16.8

Describe how decompression sickness can be treated.

46.16.10

Explain the effects of an explosive decompression on the body.

46.16.12

Explain the actions that must be taken to deal with an explosive decompression.

46.16.14

Explain the dangers of flying after diving.

46.16.16

State the approximate required times between diving at various depths and flying.

46.18

Vision and visual perception

46.18.2

Describe methods of avoiding and/or coping with the:

         (a)      stroboscopic illumination illusion/flicker vertigo

         (b)      break-off phenomenon

         (c)      sector whiteout

         (d)      black hole phenomenon.

46.20

Hearing and balance

46.20.2

Describe the effect of prolonged noise exposure on hearing.

46.20.4

Describe methods of protecting hearing.

46.20.6

Specify the various levels of noise in decibels at which various grades of hearing protection are required.

46.20.8

Specify noise levels at which hearing damage may occur.

46.20.10

Describe what is meant by the action threshold for hearing protection.

46.20.12

Explain the effects of age induced hearing loss (presbycusis).

 

Flying and Health

46.30

Fitness to fly

46.30.2

Explain the responsibilities of pilots towards medical fitness for flight.

46.30.4

Describe the problems associated with pregnancy and flying.

46.30.6

State when a pregnant pilot must stop flying.

46.30.8

With regard to the following factors describe their effects on pilot performance and methods by which they may be minimised/managed:

         (a)      arterial disease

         (b)      blood pressure

         (c)      diet

         (d)      exercise

         (e)      obesity

          (f)      smoking

         (g)      respiratory tract infection/allergies (including colds, sinus, hay fever, influenza, asthma)

         (h)      food poisoning and gastroenteritis

           (i)      neurological factors (including fits/epilepsy, brain injury, fainting, headaches, migraines)

           (j)      emotional factors (including depression and anxiety)

         (k)      psychiatric diseases

           (l)      physical injuries

       (m)      dehydration

         (n)      hypoglycaemia.

46.30.10

Describe the symptoms of gastrointestinal problems.

46.30.12

Identify the primary causes of food poisoning.

46.32

Alcohol and drugs

46.32.2

Explain the effects of alcohol on pilot performance.

46.32.4

Explain the restriction associated with the consumption of alcohol and flying.

46.32.6

Describe how individuals differ in the effect of alcohol consumption.

46.32.8

Explain the effects of drugs on pilot performance.

46.32.10

Explain why illegal/recreational drugs are unacceptable for pilots.

46.36

Environmental hazards

46.36.2

Describe the symptoms, effects and immediate treatments for the following hazards present in the aviation environment:

         (a)      carbon monoxide

         (b)      fuel

         (c)      chemical sprays

         (d)      lubricating oils

         (e)      hydraulic fluids

          (f)      compressed gases

         (g)      liquid oxygen

         (h)      de-icing fluids

           (i)      fire extinguishing agents

           (j)      fire accelerant substances

         (k)      ozone

           (l)      solar radiation.

 

46.38

 

Stress management

46.38.2

Identify and give examples of physical, environmental, task-related, organisational and psychological stressors.

46.38.4

Explain methods of identifying stress.

46.38.6

Describe the effects of stress on attention, motivation and performance.

46.38.8

Explain methods of managing stress.

46.40

Sleep and fatigue (alertness management)

46.40.2

Describe the stages of sleep.

46.40.4

Describe the mechanism of sleep regulation.

46.40.6

Describe problems associated with sleep at abnormal times of the day.

46.40.8

Explain what is meant by sleep debt.

46.40.10

Describe what is meant by sleep inertia, when it is most likely to occur and how long it takes to wear off.

46.40.12

Explain the effects of the following alertness management techniques:

         (a)      napping

         (b)      caffeine consumption

         (c)      taking sedatives

         (d)      taking stimulants other than caffeine.

46.40.14

Describe methods of managing fatigue.

46.40.16

Define the following terms:

         (a)      biological clock

         (b)      circadian rhythm

         (c)      circadian dysrhythmia

         (d)      desynchronisation

         (e)      zeitgeber.

46.40.18

Describe the central human physiological processes underlying circadian rhythm processes.

46.40.20

Explain how circadian rhythms affect pilot performance.

46.40.22

Explain the effects of circadian dysrhythmia and methods of managing these.

46.40.24

Describe the rate of adjustment of crossing time zones, in easterly and westerly directions.

46.40.26

Explain why the rate of time zone adjustment varies between easterly and westerly directions.

46.40.28

Describe the impact of shiftwork on a pilot performance.

46.40.30

Describe how the biological effects of shiftwork can be minimised.

46.40.32

Identify the principles of good rostering practice.

46.42

Ageing

46.42.2

Describe the effects of the normal processes of human ageing on:

         (a)      the sensitivity and acuity of the sensory systems

         (b)      muscular strength

         (c)      resilience and reaction times

         (d)      sleep/wakefulness patterns

         (e)      cognitive or mental functioning

          (f)      the acquisition of new information

         (g)      the retention and retrieval of stored information in memory

         (h)      the rate of information processing

           (i)      insight and self-awareness of your individual capabilities.

46.42.4

Describe methods by which age-related changes in memory and speed of information processing can be moderated by older pilots.

46.42.6

Describe what changes would indicate early dementia or age related cognitive impairment in another pilot.

 

Aviation Psychology

46.44

Information processing

46.44.2

Describe the brain’s role in registering sensations, processing sensory information, storing information and controlling actions.

46.44.4

Describe a basic model of information processing, including the concepts of:

         (a)      attention

         (b)      divided attention

         (c)      selective attention

         (d)      attention getting stimulus

         (e)      sensory threshold

          (f)      sensitivity

         (g)      adaptation

         (h)      habitation.

46.44.6

Describe the following types of memory:

         (a)      peripheral/sensory memory

         (b)      short term/working memory

         (c)      long term memory

         (d)      motor/skills memory

         (e)      semantic memory

          (f)      episodic memory.

46.44.8

Explain the following methods of retaining and retrieving information from memory:

         (a)      chunking

         (b)      mnemonics

         (c)      associations (verbal and visual)

         (d)      checklists

         (e)      aide memoirs.

46.44.10

Explain the concept of mental workload.

46.44.12

Explain the concept of overload.

46.44.14

Describe methods of managing potential overload.

46.44.16

Describe and compare skill, rule and knowledge based behaviours.

46.44.18

Describe the process of acquiring a skill.

46.44.20

Describe failures of skill, rule and knowledge based behaviours.

46.44.22

Explain confirmation bias.

46.44.24

Describe the formation of mental models.

46.46

Situational awareness

46.46.2

Describe strategies to maintain and enhance situational awareness.

46.46.4

Explain the relationship between CRM and the building of situational awareness amongst flight-crew.

46.48

Judgement and decision making

46.48.2

Explain clues or red flags that can assist in identifying the error/poor judgement chain.

46.48.4

Identify risk assessment techniques.

46.48.6

Identify risk levels that compromise safety.

46.48.8

Describe the elements and risk levels associated with ultra-safe systems.

46.48.10

Identify risks that would degrade system safety goals.

46.48.12

Describe the following risk management strategies:

         (a)      isolation

         (b)      mitigation

         (c)      elimination.

46.48.14

Explain the application of decision-making models used in aviation:

(a)   DECIDE

(b)   SADIE

(c)   FDODAR.

46.48.16

Identify situations where time pressure compromises safety or increases risk levels.

46.50

Social psychology and flight deck management

46.50.2

Identify the broad characteristics of personality and distinguish individual differences.

46.50.4

Describe methods of maximising crew resource management.

46.50.6

Identify the factors that affect team performance.

46.50.8

Describe how effective teams or team working can reduce errors.

46.50.10

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.

46.50.12

Explain the concepts of:

         (a)      risk shift

         (b)      conformity

         (c)      compliance.

46.50.14

Describe the following personality traits and explain their effect on group decision making:

         (a)      introversion

         (b)      extraversion

         (c)      anxiety.

46.50.16

Explain and differentiate between goal/task directed and relationship directed styles of behaviour.

46.50.18

Describe autocratic and democratic leadership styles.

46.50.20

Describe ideal leadership characteristics.

46.50.22

Explain problems that can arise from:

         (a)      status/seniority differences

         (b)      lack of assertiveness

         (c)      cultural differences.

46.50.24

Explain the concept of authority gradient.

46.50.26

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of varying cockpit authority gradients.

46.50.28

Explain problems that can arise from an authority gradient that is too steep or too shallow.

46.50.30

Describe the cultural aspects of authority gradients.

46.50.32

Explain the influence of the following on the effectiveness of cockpit communications:

         (a)      the skills of enquiry, advocacy and assertion

         (b)      listening

         (c)      conflict resolution

         (d)      critique/feedback.

46.50.34

Describe the barriers to effective communication.

46.50.36

Identify techniques to reduce communication barriers.

46.50.38

Explain the following strategies used to reduce communication errors in aviation:

         (a)      read-backs

         (b)      standard phraseology

         (c)      standard calls

         (d)      cross-checks

         (e)      document verification checks

          (f)      display and control setting checks

         (g)      sterile cockpit policies.

46.50.40

Identify signs that information transfer has been successful or otherwise.

46.50.42

Describe the differences between upward, downward and horizontal communication and give examples of where each is used in the workplace.

46.50.44

Describe means of managing effective communications between flight crew and:

         (a)      cabin crew

         (b)      passengers

         (c)      air traffic control services

         (d)      maintenance personnel

         (e)      company personnel.

46.52

Threat and error management

46.52.2

Describe threats which could potentially affect a safe flight.

46.52.4

Describe threat management, including the means of:

         (a)      recognising threats

         (b)      avoiding

         (c)      mitigating the effects of threats.

46.52.6

Describe and identify examples of overt/active threats.

46.52.8

Describe and identify examples of latent threats.

46.52.10

Identify methods and means for detecting error in the aviation system.

46.52.12

Describe error avoidance techniques.

46.52.14

Explain how incipient errors can be trapped after they have been committed.

46.52.16

Explain how the consequences of errors that are not trapped can be mitigated.

46.52.18

Explain how CRM countermeasures assist the management of threat and error.

46.52.20

Describe and identify examples of a latent failure/error.

46.52.22

Describe and identify examples of an active failure/error.

46.54

Culture

46.54.2

Explain the principles of SMS in air operations.

46.54.4

Describe reporting mechanisms to rectify safety problems.

46.54.6

Define the core concept of an organisational culture.

46.54.8

Outline the ways in which organisational culture affects performance.

46.54.10

Describe what is meant by harassment, its effects on employees and how it should be dealt with should it arise in the workplace.

46.54.12

Describe what is meant by stereotypes and stereotypical behaviour within organisations and give examples of where such behaviour may have a negative impact on safety.

46.54.14

Describe the inertia of large organisations with respect to safety messages.

46.54.16

List the key reasons for a safety reporting system within an aviation organisation.

46.54.18

Explain the relevance of internal hazard reporting.

46.54.20

Describe the key elements of the Just Culture approach to the management of errors, reporting, and the use of disciplinary sanctions under this approach.

46.54.22

Describe the concepts of risk creep and risk tolerance and their application within an aviation organisation.

 

Ergonomics

46.56

Flight deck design

46.56.2

Describe the basic principles of control, display and workspace design.

46.56.4

Explain the importance of the following in flight deck design:

         (a)      reach

         (b)      comfort

         (c)      posture

         (d)      lighting levels.

46.56.6

Distinguish between biometrics, biomechanics and anthropometry.

46.56.8

Describe applications of biomechanics in the design of flight decks.

46.56.10

Explain the relevance of anthropometry in the design of flight decks.

46.56.12

Describe the effects of a poorly designed cockpit on pilot performance.

46.56.14

Explain the importance of eye datum or eye design position.

46.56.16

Describe the problems associated with windshield design and visibility.

46.56.18

List the advantages and disadvantages of working in an automated cockpit.

46.56.20

Describe the effects of advanced cockpit automation, including:

         (a)      failure to monitor

         (b)      boredom and complacency

         (c)      loss of proficiency

         (d)      job satisfaction

         (e)      crew coordination

          (f)      problems associated with equipment failure.

46.56.22

Explain the concept of mode awareness in setting up and operating automated systems.

46.56.24

Describe elements of coping behaviour associated with automatic cockpits.

46.58

Design of controls

46.58.2

Explain the importance of the following in control design:

         (a)      size

         (b)      shape/recognition by touch

         (c)      location

         (d)      layout and the uniformity of spatial arrangement

         (e)      direction of movement

          (f)      visibility.

46.60

Instrumentation, displays and alerts

46.60.2

Explain the importance of the following in the design of instrumentation, displays and alerts:

         (a)      size

         (b)      position

         (c)      layout

         (d)      visibility

         (e)      legibility

          (f)      scale

         (g)      use of colour

         (h)      illumination.

46.60.4

Describe problems associated with the presentation and misinterpretation of alerts.

46.62

Documents and procedures

46.62.2

Explain the importance of colour, font type and size for written checklists.

46.62.4

Describe problems associated with the design and use of checklists and manuals.

46.62.6

Describe problems associated with the design and use of maps and charts.

 


Subject No. 48        Advanced Aerodynamics, Performance, and Systems Knowledge (Aeroplane)

NOTE: This syllabus is based on a multi engine turbine air transport type aeroplane.

System and procedure items are those systems and procedures typically found in an airline-operated air-transport type aeroplane.

Assessment of this syllabus will be principally based on, but not limited to, a specific approved ‘representative’ aircraft and the associated performance manual data.

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate. These reference numbers are common across the subject levels and therefore may not be consecutive.

This syllabus presupposes a knowledge and understanding already attained at PPL and CPL levels.

Mnemonics used are those in common use at the time of writing. The use of a specific mnemonic indicates this syllabus requires knowledge of the concept or system commonly or historically associated with that acronym.

 

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

 

 

Section 1 Aeroscience

 

 

48.2

Transonic speed

 

 

48.2.2

Explain the term ‘speed of sound’.

 

 

48.2.4

Explain the factor determining the local speed of sound (LSS).

 

 

48.2.6

Define Mach number and associated computational formulae.

 

 

48.2.8

Calculate the speed of sound given the appropriate information.

 

 

48.2.10

Calculate ‘Mach number’ given the appropriate information.

 

 

48.2.12

Explain the change of IAS and TAS as a function of altitude at a given Mach number.

 

 

48.2.14

Explain the term critical Mach number (Mcrit).

 

 

48.2.16

Explain the potential hazard of maintaining a constant Mach number in the climb and descent.

 

 

48.2.18

Explain the term 'crossover altitude' otherwise known as ‘speed transition’.

 

 

48.4

Stability and control

 

 

48.4.2

Explain swept wing pitching moments at high subsonic speeds.

 

 

48.4.4

Explain the 'lateral stability' issues arising at high subsonic speeds.

 

 

48.4.6

Explain how the following factors affect lateral stability at high subsonic speeds:

          (a)      dihedral

          (b)      anhedral

          (c)      tail surface shielding

          (d)      wing position

          (e)      keel surface/fin area

           (f)      sweepback

 

 

48.4.8

Explain the requirement to match lateral and directional stability.

 

 

48.4.10

Explain the conditions of:

          (a)       spiral instability

          (b)       Dutch roll

          (c)       snaking

 

 

48.4.12

Describe the function of a yaw damper system.

 

 

48.4.14

Describe how ‘active flight path stability’ is managed by a fly-by-wire control system.

 

 

48.6

Transonic aerodynamics

 

 

48.6.2

Explain the meaning of the term ‘shockwave’.

 

 

48.6.4

Explain the formation of shockwaves.

 

 

48.6.6

Describe the changes to the air as it passes over an aerofoil when the free airflow stream is between Mcrit and Mdet.

 

 

48.6.8

Describe the movement of the centre of pressure with increasing Mach number.

 

 

48.6.10

Describe the changes to the air as it passes through a shockwave.

 

 

48.6.12

Within the transonic range, describe the change in the:

          (a)       lift coefficient

          (b)       drag coefficient

 

 

48.6.14

Describe the behaviour of the shockwaves as the Mach number increases.

 

 

48.6.16

Explain the meaning of the term ‘bow wave’.

 

 

48.6.18

Explain the meaning of the term ‘sonic buffet/Mach buffet’.

 

 

48.6.20

Explain the effect of the following on Mcrit:

          (a)      angle of sweepback

          (b)      aerofoil ‘thickness to chord’ ratio

          (c)      a ‘supercritical’ aerofoil section

 

 

48.6.22

Define Mach critical drag rise (Mcdr), otherwise known as force or drag-divergence Mach Number (Mfd or Mdd).

 

 

48.8

Transonic aerofoils

 

 

48.8.2

Describe the design characteristics of ‘high subsonic flight’ airfoils.

 

 

48.8.4

Explain the advantages of a ‘supercritical’ aerofoil section.

 

 

48.8.6

Explain the:

          (a)      advantages of sweepback

          (b)      disadvantages of sweepback

 

 

48.8.8

Explain the phenomenon ‘aileron reversal’.

 

 

48.8.10

Explain the advantages of ‘vortex generators’ in the high subsonic speed regime.

 

 

48.8.12

Explain how an increase of the angle of attack influences the normal shockwave.

 

 

48.8.14

Explain shock stall, including its relationship with Mach buffet.

 

 

48.8.16

Describe the behaviour of an aeroplane at shock stall, including Mach tuck.

 

 

48.8.18

Describe wave drag.

 

 

48.8.20

Explain ‘area ruling’ in air-transport aeroplane design.

 

 

48.8.22

Explain the effect of a shockwave formed over a control surface on control effectiveness.

 

 

 

Section 2 Aeroplane Systems

 

 

48.20

Engine management systems

 

 

48.20.2

Explain the function of an auto thrust system.

 

 

48.20.4

Explain the principle of operation of an auto thrust system.

 

 

48.20.6

For an auto thrust system, describe the system:

          (a)      inputs

          (b)      controls

          (c)      indications

          (d)      warnings

 

 

48.20.8

Describe the functions of a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC).

 

 

48.22

Flight control systems

 

 

48.22.2

With respect to primary flight control systems:

          (a)      describe the function, operation and advantages of roll control spoilers

          (b)      describe the function and operation of inboard and outboard aileron

          (c)      explain the reason for speed blending (fairing) of outboard ailerons

          (d)      describe the function and advantages of variable incident (all-flying) horizontal stabilisers

          (e)      describe the function and advantages of a rudder ratio changer system

           (f)      describe the function and operation of a gust suppression system

 

 

 

48.22.4

 

With respect to secondary flight control systems:

          (a)      describe the function and operation of speed brakes

          (b)      describe the function and operation of ground spoilers (lift dumpers)

          (c)      describe the function, operation and advantages of trailing-edge lift augmentation devices

          (d)      describe the function, operation and advantages of leading-edge lift augmentation devices

 

 

48.24

Automatic control systems

 

 

48.24.2

Describe the control surface actuation methods found on a typical air-transport aeroplane.

 

 

48.24.4

Describe the function of a ‘fly-by-wire’ flight control system.

 

 

48.24.6

Explain the operating principle of a ‘fly-by-wire’ flight control system.

 

 

48.24.8

Explain how triple-redundancy is obtained in flight control systems.

 

 

48.24.12

Describe the backup systems associated with powered flight controls.

 

 

48.24.14

Explain the purpose of ‘feel or feedback systems’ in powered flight controls.

 

 

48.26

Hydraulic systems

 

 

48.26.2

For an air-transport aeroplane, explain the:

          (a)      advantages of using hydraulics to operate services

          (b)      disadvantages of using hydraulics to operate services

 

 

48.26.4

Describe the function of the following:

          (a)      bypass valve

          (b)      hydraulic fuse

          (c)      standpipe

 

 

48.26.6

Explain how redundancy is obtained in the hydraulic systems of air-transport aeroplanes.

 

 

48.26.8

Explain the operating principle of a ram air turbine (RAT).

 

 

48.26.10

Describe the methods of monitoring the hydraulic system.

 

 

48.26.12

Describe the warnings associated with a hydraulic system.

 

 

48.28

Pneumatic systems

 

 

48.28.2

Describe the typical sources of pneumatic bleed air.

 

 

48.28.4

Explain the principle of operation of a bleed air pneumatic system.

 

 

48.28.6

Describe the components of a pneumatic system.

 

 

48.28.8

Describe the function of a pneumatic system (including the uses of bleed air).

 

 

48.28.10

Describe the malfunctions and leak warning of pneumatic systems.

 

 

48.30

Electrical systems - DC

 

 

48.30.2

Describe the battery installations installed in an air-transport aeroplane.

 

 

48.30.4

For an air-transport aeroplane battery system, explain the:

          (a)      function of the system

          (b)      battery types

          (c)      associated hazards

          (d)      safety measures required

 

 

48.32

Electrical systems - AC

 

 

48.32.2

For an AC electrical system, explain the terms:

          (a)      alternating current

          (b)      frequency

          (c)      RMS voltage

          (d)      RMS current

          (e)      phase

 

 

48.32.4

Explain the function of the following:

          (a)      transformer rectifier

          (b)      inverter

          (c)      relay

 

 

48.32.6

Explain the difference between a split system and parallel system of load distribution.

 

 

48.32.8

Explain operating principle of a constant speed generator drive (CSD).

 

 

48.32.10

Explain operating principle of an integrated drive generator (IDG).

 

 

48.32.12

Explain the consequences of an IDG mechanical disconnect during flight.

 

 

48.32.14

Explain the function and operating principle of a variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) drive.

 

 

48.34

Landing gear systems - retractable

 

 

48.34.2

Explain the requirements placed on an air-transport aeroplane’s landing gear system.

 

 

48.34.4

Describe the layout of an air-transport aeroplane's landing gear system.

 

 

48.34.6

Describe the function of the following landing gear components:

          (a)      bogies

          (b)      drag-strut

          (c)      side-strut

          (d)      torsion links

          (e)      air/ground sensing

           (f)      gear pins

 

 

48.34.8

Describe the cockpit indications associated with landing gear systems.

 

 

48.34.10

Describe gear warning systems.

 

 

48.34.12

Describe the protection systems to avoid inadvertent gear retraction on ground.

 

 

48.34.14

Explain the methods for emergency gear extension.

 

 

48.34.16

Explain the reasons for using nitrogen gas to pressurise the tyres on air-transport aeroplanes.

 

 

48.34.18

Describe the function of thermal plugs.

 

 

48.34.20

Define ‘tyre creep’.

 

 

48.34.22

Explain the requirement for speed limitations for landing gear operation.

 

 

48.36

Aircraft wheel brake system

 

 

48.36.2

Describe the function of an autobrake system.

 

 

48.36.4

Explain the principle of operation of an autobrake system.

 

 

48.36.6

Describe the function of an anti-skid system.

 

 

48.36.8

Describe the principle of operation of an anti-skid system.

 

 

48.36.10

Describe the RTO function of an autobrake system.

 

 

48.36.12

Explain the operation of an RTO system.

 

 

48.36.14

Explain the principle of operation of a park brake system.

 

 

48.36.16

Describe the various types of air-transport aeroplane brakes.

 

 

48.36.18

Explain the implications of excessive wheel brake temperature.

 

 

48.36.20

Explain the requirement for brake wear indicators.

 

 

48.38

Fuel pump systems

 

 

48.38.2

Describe the function of:

          (a)      low pressure engine-driven fuel pumps

          (b)      high pressure engine-driven fuel pumps

          (c)      submersible electric pumps

          (d)      jet pumps

 

 

 

 

48.40

 

 

Fuel tanks systems

 

 

48.40.2

Describe the function, and where appropriate, explain the operating principle of:

          (a)      expansion spaces

          (b)      fuel quantity detectors

          (c)      fuel flow meters and totalisers

          (d)      selector valves

          (e)      non-return valves

           (f)      vent systems

          (g)      firewall shutoff valve

          (h)      manual de-fuelling valve

           (i)      single point pressure refueling

 

 

48.40.4

Describe the function of fuel cross feed systems.

 

 

48.40.6

Explain the order of fuel tank use in an air-transport aeroplane.

 

 

48.40.8

Explain the meaning of ‘unusable fuel’.

 

 

48.40.10

Explain why fuel quantity is measured by weight.

 

 

48.40.12

Describe how:

          (a)      fuel imbalance can occur

          (b)      a fuel imbalance situation is corrected

 

 

48.40.14

Explain the significance of fuel temperature.

 

 

48.40.16

Explain the methods of fuel temperature management.

 

 

48.40.18

Explain the requirement for a fuel jettison (dump) system.

 

 

48.40.20

Describe a fuel jettison (dump) system.

 

 

48.42

Fire warning systems

 

 

48.42.2

Describe the function of fire and smoke warning systems.

 

 

48.42.4

Explain the operation of:

          (a)      unit type (spot or point) fire detectors

          (b)      continuous loop fire detectors

 

 

48.42.6

Explain the fire warning test procedures.

 

 

48.42.8

Explain the principle of operation of the fire warning system installed in the:

          (a)      engine area

          (b)      APU area

          (c)      cargo area

          (d)      avionics area

          (e)      wheel well

           (f)      toilets

          (g)      cabin

 

 

48.44

Fire protection and suppression systems

 

 

48.44.2

Describe aeroplane-installed fire extinguishing systems.

 

 

48.44.4

Explain the limitations of aeroplane-installed fire extinguishing systems.

 

 

48.44.6

With reference to portable extinguishers, explain the:

          (a)      preferred extinguishing agent for the various types of fire

          (b)      precautions associated with the various extinguishing agents

 

 

48.44.8

Describe aeroplane-installed electrical fire protection systems.

 

 

48.46

Ice and rain protection systems

 

 

48.46.2

Explain the operating principles of the following types of ice protection systems:

          (a)      bleed air thermal

          (b)      pneumatic boots

          (c)      electrical

 

 

48.46.4

Explain the difference between anti-icing systems and de-icing systems.

 

 

48.46.6

Explain the effects of ice protection system operation on engine performance.

 

 

48.46.8

Explain the correct operation of a mechanical (pneumatic boot) system.

 

 

48.46.10

Explain the correct operation of a thermal ice protection system.

 

 

48.46.12

Explain the operating principles of ice detectors.

 

 

48.46.14

Describe the effect on the performance of an air transport aeroplane of:

          (a)      airframe icing

          (b)      engine icing

 

 

48.46.16

Describe:

          (a)      windscreen heating systems

          (b)      rain clearance systems

 

 

48.50

Oxygen systems

 

 

48.50.2

Explain the purpose of a flight deck oxygen system.

 

 

48.50.4

Explain the principle of operation of a flight deck oxygen system.

 

 

48.50.6

Explain the purpose of passenger cabin oxygen systems.

 

 

48.50.8

Explain the principle of operation of a passenger cabin overhead oxygen system.

 

 

48.50.10

Describe the actuation methods for passenger cabin oxygen.

 

 

48.50.12

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of a:

          (a)      chemical oxygen system

          (b)      gaseous oxygen system

 

 

48.52

Environmental control systems

 

 

48.52.2

Describe the function of an air-conditioning system.

 

 

48.52.4

Explain the principle of operation of an air-conditioning system.

 

 

48.52.6

For an air-conditioning system, describe the associated:

(a)    controls

(b)    indications

(c)    warnings

 

 

48.52.8

Describe the function of a pressurisation system.

 

 

48.52.10

Explain the principle of operation of a pressurisation system.

 

 

48.52.12

For a pressurisation system, describe the associated:

          (a)      controls

          (b)      indications

          (c)      warnings

 

 

48.52.14

Explain the following terms:

          (a)      pressure hull

          (b)      cabin altitude

          (c)      cabin vertical speed

          (d)      differential pressure

          (e)      pressurisation profile

           (f)      ‘catching the cabin’

 

 

48.52.16

Describe the function of the following:

          (a)      pressure controller

          (b)      pressure rate selector

          (c)      cabin landing altitude selector

          (d)      barometric pressure selector

 

 

48.52.18

Explain the operating principle of the following:

          (a)      pressure controller

          (b)      pressure relief valve

          (c)      negative pressure relief valve

          (d)      outflow valve

 

 

48.52.20

Describe the emergency operation of a pressurisation system.

 

 

 

 

 

Section 3 Performance

 

 

48.60

Performance factors – takeoff

 

 

48.60.2

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      runway

          (b)      the 'slope' of a runway

          (c)      stopway

          (d)      clearway

          (e)      takeoff run (TOR)

           (f)      takeoff run available (TORA)

          (g)      takeoff run required (TORR)

          (h)      takeoff distance (TOD)

           (i)      takeoff distance available (TODA)

           (j)      takeoff distance required (TODR)

          (k)      accelerate stop distance (ASD)

           (l)      accelerate stop distance available (ASDA)

        (m)      accelerate stop distance required (ASDR)

          (n)      the 'screen height' on takeoff

          (o)      reduced thrust

          (p)      balanced field length (BFL)

          (q)      balanced takeoff

 

 

48.60.4

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      VEF

          (b)      V1

          (c)      VMCG

          (d)      VMCA

          (e)      VR

           (f)      VMU

          (g)      VLOF

          (h)      VMBE

           (i)      V2

 

 

48.60.6

Explain the factors affecting V1.

 

 

48.60.8

Explain the factors affecting V2.

 

 

48.60.10

State the relationship between:

          (a)      VEF and V1

          (b)      V1 and VR

          (c)      V1 and VMCG

          (d)      V1 and VMBE

          (e)      VR and VMCA

           (f)      V2 and VS

          (g)      VS and VMCA

          (h)      V2 and VMCA

 

 

48.60.12

Describe a rejected takeoff (RTO).

 

 

48.60.14

Describe the procedures applied following an aeroplane malfunction on the takeoff roll, prior to V1.

 

 

48.60.16

Describe the procedures applied following an engine failure or fire at or above V1.

 

 

48.60.18

Describe the likely outcome of continuing a takeoff following an engine failure earlier than 2 seconds prior to V1.

 

 

48.60.20

Describe the likely outcome of aborting a takeoff following an engine failure after V1 on a runway length limited takeoff.

 

 

48.60.22

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      takeoff path

          (b)      takeoff flight path

          (c)      gross climb gradient

          (d)      net climb gradient

          (e)      reference zero

           (f)      net takeoff flight path (NTOFP)

 

 

48.60.24

State the minimum heights between the NTOFP and obstacles which must be maintained in the following situations:

          (a)      straight flight path from a dry runway

          (b)      straight flight path from a wet runway

          (c)      turning flight path from a dry runway

          (d)      turning flight path from a wet runway

 

 

48.60.26

Define:

          (a)      1st climb segment

          (b)      2nd climb segment

          (c)      3rd climb segment

          (d)      4th climb segment

 

 

48.60.28

In each of the initial climb segments, describe the:

          (a)      aeroplane configuration

          (b)      required power/thrust setting

          (c)      speed

          (d)      obstacle clearance heights

          (e)      minimum climb gradients (net and gross)

 

 

48.60.30

Describe the lateral dimensions of the net takeoff flight path (NTOFP).

 

 

48.60.32

Explain the effect of near-in obstacles in the NTOFP on TODA.

 

 

48.60.34

Explain how initial climb performance is affected by various takeoff:

          (a)      configurations

          (b)      procedures

 

 

48.60.36

Describe the circumstances under which reduced thrust/power may be used for takeoff.

 

 

48.60.38

Explain how the reduced thrust/power is determined for takeoff.

 

 

48.60.40

Define a:

(a)    wet runway

(b)    contaminated runway

 

 

48.60.42

Describe the effect of wet or contaminated runways on takeoff performance.

 

 

48.60.44

Explain the environmental factors which affect an aeroplane's takeoff performance.

 

 

48.60.46

Explain the environmental factors which affect an aeroplane's initial climb performance.

 

 

48.60.48

Explain the effect of runway dimensions on an aeroplane’s takeoff performance.

 

 

48.60.50

Explain the effect of tyre and brake energy limitations on an aeroplane's takeoff performance.

 

 

48.60.52

Explain how flight manual data is used to construct specimen runway performance information.

 

 

48.60.54

Explain the application of a balanced field length including the:

          (a)      relationship between takeoff distance, accelerate stop distance and V1

          (b)      effect of a stopway on the allowed takeoff weight and appropriate V1

          (c)      effect of a clearway on the allowed takeoff weight and appropriate V1

 

 

48.60.56

Explain the factors which affect an aeroplane's enroute climb performance.

 

 

48.62

Performance factors - cruise

 

 

48.62.2

Define design manoeuvring speed (VA).

 

 

48.62.4

Explain the derivation of VA.

 

 

48.62.6

Explain the effect of weight on VA.

 

 

48.62.8

Define turbulence penetration speed (VB).

 

 

48.62.10

Explain the derivation of VB.

 

 

48.62.12

Explain the meaning of ‘low speed buffet’.

 

 

48.62.14

Explain the meaning of ‘high speed buffet’.

 

 

48.62.16

Explain the meaning of ‘buffet margin’.

 

 

48.62.18

Define the term ‘coffin corner’.

 

 

48.62.20

Explain the ‘coffin corner’ recovery considerations.

 

 

48.62.22

Describe the influence of the following on the buffet margin:

          (a)      pressure altitude

          (b)      aeroplane weight

          (c)      load factor

 

 

48.62.24

Explain the purpose of step climbs used on long distance flights.

 

 

48.62.26

Explain the factors which affect the choice of optimum altitude.

 

 

48.62.28

Explain the factors which may limit the maximum operating altitude.

 

 

48.62.30

Explain the factors which affect an aeroplane's cruise performance.

 

 

48.62.32

Explain the use of ‘cost index’ to determine the appropriate speeds for climb and cruise.

 

 

48.62.34

Differentiate between max range cruise (MRC) speed and long range cruise (LRC).

 

 

48.62.36

Explain the effect of wind on cruise range (distance and speed).

 

 

48.62.38

Explain the effect of weight on cruise range (distance and speed).

 

48.62.40

Describe the flight profile which provides greatest fuel efficiency.

 

48.62.42

Describe the flight profile which allows the longest time airborne before reaching minimum reserves.

 

48.62.44

Describe the flight profile which best utilises fuel before it is lost out of a leaking tank.

 

 

48.62.46

Explain the meaning of ‘drift down’.

 

 

48.62.48

Identify factors which affect the enroute drift down flight path.

 

 

48.62.50

Describe the minimum obstacle clearance enroute net flight path.

 

 

48.62.52

State the thrust to be set on the operating engine(s) during drift down.

 

 

48.62.54

State the thrust to be set in the case of critical terrain clearance during drift down.

 

 

48.64

Performance factors - approach and landing

 

 

48.64.2

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      VMO/MMO

          (b)      VLE

          (c)      VLO

          (d)      VFE

          (e)      VREF

           (f)      VAPP (Velocity Approach)

          (g)      VTT/TTS (otherwise known as VAT and VT)

 

 

48.64.4

State the relationship between:

          (a)      configuration and manoeuvring speed

          (b)      VREF and VS.

 

 

48.64.6

Explain the factors which affect an aeroplane's descent performance.

 

 

48.64.8

Explain the effect of weight on descent planning.

 

48.64.10

Calculate the top of descent point to make good a specified height and distance, given a descent profile in nautical miles per 1000 feet.

 

48.64.12

Explain the factors which affect an aeroplane's approach and landing performance.

 

 

48.64.14

Explain the meaning of 'screen height' on landing.

 

 

48.64.16

Explain the meaning of:

          (a)      demonstrated landing distance (DLD)

          (b)      landing distance required (LDR)

 

 

48.64.18

Describe the determination of:

          (a)      demonstrated landing distance

          (b)      landing distance required

 

 

48.64.20

Explain the meaning of landing distance available (LDA).

 

 

48.64.22

Describe the determination of landing distance available.

 

 

48.64.24

State the relationship between demonstrated landing distance and landing distance available.

 

 

48.64.26

Explain the meaning of ‘approach climb’.

 

 

48.64.28

Explain the configuration and minimum climb gradient used to determine the approach climb limited landing weight.

 

 

48.64.30

Explain the meaning of ‘landing climb’.

 

 

48.64.32

Explain the configuration and minimum climb gradient used to determine the landing climb limited landing weight.

 

 

48.64.34

Describe the one engine inoperative landing committal/decision height.

 

 

48.64.36

Describe the effect of the following system malfunctions on an aeroplane's landing performance:

          (a)      flap restrictions

          (b)      anti-skid failure

          (c)      reduced brake availability

 

 

48.64.38

Describe the effect of wet or contaminated runways on landing performance.

 

 

48.64.40

Define ‘hydroplaning’ (aquaplaning).

 

 

48.64.42

Calculate the speed at which hydroplaning may occur for a given tyre pressure.

 

 

48.64.44

Explain the technical factors determining minimum ‘turnaround time'.

 

 

48.90

Performance - calculations and data extraction

 

 

48.90.2

Using appropriate weather, load, airfield and aeroplane performance data, extract/calculate:

          (a)      takeoff distance available

          (b)      accelerate stop distance available

          (c)      maximum takeoff weight

          (d)      takeoff thrust (including reduced thrust)

          (e)      maximum continuous thrust

           (f)      takeoff speeds

          (g)      flap retraction configuration

          (h)      air conditioning pack configuration for takeoff

           (i)      stabiliser trim setting

           (j)      climb thrust (including reduced thrust)

          (k)      climb speed schedules

           (l)      cruise thrust

        (m)      cruise speed schedules

          (n)      maximum and optimum cruise levels

          (o)      optimum aircraft weight for a step climb

          (p)      high and low speed buffet margins

          (q)      turbulence penetration speeds

           (r)      one engine inoperative (OEI) drift down thrust, speeds, flight paths and level-off altitude

          (s)      time and distance to touchdown

           (t)      landing distances available

          (u)      landing speeds

          (v)      landing distance required

        (w)      maximum landing weight

          (x)      go-around thrust

 

 

48.92

Weight and balance - general

 

 

48.92.2

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      % MAC

          (b)      empty weight (empty aeroplane weight)

          (c)      basic operating weight (aeroplane prepared for service weight)

          (d)      maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW)

          (e)      maximum ramp weight

           (f)      takeoff/brakes release weight (TOW/BRW)

          (g)      maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)

          (h)      regulated takeoff weight (RTOW)

           (i)      landing weight

           (j)      maximum landing weight

 

 

48.92.4

Explain why the centre of gravity (CofG) must be within the certified limits.

 

 

48.92.6

Describe the influence of fuel loading on the centre of gravity.

 

 

48.92.8

Explain the effect of centre of gravity on fuel consumption.

 

 

48.94

Weight and balance - calculations and data extraction

 

 

48.94.2

Using representative air-transport aeroplane loading and performance data, extract/calculate:

          (a)      ramp weight

          (b)      takeoff/brakes release weight (TOW/BRW)

          (c)      regulated takeoff weight (RTOW)

          (d)      zero fuel weight (ZFW)

          (e)      landing weight

           (f)      available payload

          (g)      the aeroplane’s CofG at any given time

 

 

48.94.4

Solve the following loading problems to determine the:

          (a)      revised CofG position when loading or offloading weight

          (b)      revised CofG position when relocating load components

          (c)      load change required to place the CofG within limits

          (d)      load position change to place the CofG within limits

 

 

48.96

Aeroplane and pavement classification systems

 

 

48.96.2

Given representative air-transport aeroplane and runway data, determine the:

          (a)      runway Pavement Classification Number (PCN)

          (b)      aeroplane Aircraft Classification Number (ACN)

 

 

48.96.4

Given representative air-transport aeroplane and runway data, use the ACN-PCN method to determine if the runway and associated taxiways will support the weight of the aeroplane.

 

           


Subject No. 50        ATPL Aerodynamics and Aircraft Systems (Helicopter)

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate.

SubTopic

Syllabus Item

50.2

Aeroscience

50.2.2

Explain the meaning of:

          (a)      velocity

          (b)      equilibrium

          (c)      momentum  and

          (d)      inertia.

50.2.4

State the value of the acceleration caused by the earth’s gravity.

50.2.6

Describe motion on a curved path, and differentiate between centripetal force and centrifugal reaction.

50.2.8

State the factors affecting centripetal force and rate of turn.

50.2.10

Describe the trig functions for the sine, cosine and tangent of an angle.

50.2.12

Describe the moment of a force, and the moment of a couple.

50.2.14

Describe the conditions required for translational equilibrium, and for rotational equilibrium.

50.4

Aerodynamic theory

50.4.2

Explain the changes to the airflow and pressure distribution around a typical symmetrical aerofoil as the angle of attack is increased from the zero-lift angle of attack to the stalling angle.

50.4.4

Explain the term centre of pressure (CP) and describe typical movement of the CP with increasing angle of attack with a symmetrical aerofoil section and with a non-symmetrical aerofoil section.

50.4.6

Define aerodynamic centre.

50.4.8

Describe the total aerodynamic reaction force (TR) of an aerofoil.

50.4.10

Describe how TR varies with angle of attack.

50.4.12

Define the TR components of rotor thrust and rotor drag.

50.6

Lift

50.6.2

Given a CL graph of symmetrical and non symmetrical aerofoil  against angle of attack, show:

          (a)      the zero lift angle  and

          (b)      the angle for maximum CL (CL max).

50.6.4

Explain the benefits of a high CL max.

50.6.6

Explain the effects of camber and surface roughness on CL.

50.6.8

Explain the effects of aspect ratio on CL.

50.6.10

Explain the main advantages of using the symmetrical blade section in helicopters.

50.6.12

Explain the effects on the lift produced, as the rotor tip approaches transonic speeds.

 

50.8

Drag

50.8.2

Describe the method of reducing induced drag.

50.8.4

Explain the combination of the three types of drag into the total drag curve.

50.8.6

Explain the effects on drag, as the rotor tip approaches transonic speeds.

50.10

Lift/drag ratio

50.10.2

Explain the relationship between the lift/drag ratio and the CL/CD ratio.

50.10.4

Given a graph of lift/drag ratio against angle of attack of a symmetrical aerofoil section, show:

          (a)      the ‘most efficient’ angle of attack

          (b)      the zero lift angle of attack

          (c)      the stalling angle of attack  and

          (d)      the minimum drag angle of attack.

50.10.6

Explain the factors affecting the lift/drag ratio.

 

Helicopter Rotor Discs

50.12

Terminology

50.12.2

With the aid of a diagram, identify and explain the meaning of:

          (a)      disc loading

          (b)      blade loading

          (c)      solidity

          (d)      lapping

          (e)      lead-lag (dragging)

           (f)      rotational airflow (Vr)

          (g)      induced flow

          (h)      inflow angle

           (i)      rotor thrust

           (j)      total rotor thrust

          (k)      rotor drag (torque).

50.14

Forces acting on a helicopter rotor

50.14.2

Explain the effect of a change of angle of attack and inflow angle on the rotor thrust/rotor drag ratio.

50.14.4

State and explain the three factors affecting rotor RPM limits.

50.14.6

Explain how changes in the following factors affect rotor drag:

          (a)      disc loading

          (b)      gross weight

          (c)      altitude

          (d)      configuration.

50.14.8

Explain how ground effect affects inflow angle angle of attack rotor drag and the power required to overcome rotor drag.

 

50.14.10

 

Explain how translational lift affects inflow angle angle of attack rotor thrust and the power required to overcome rotor drag in level flight.

50.14.12

Explain the principle of operation of delta-3 hinges and offset pitch horns in reducing blade flapping.

50.16

Anti-torque tail rotor

50.16.2

Explain the effect of the wind on tail rotor thrust.

50.16.4

Explain design techniques that can compensate for translating and rolling tendencies.

50.16.6

Describe pilot actions that may eliminate or reduce the effects of a loss of tail rotor thrust in flight.

50.18

Disc control

50.18.2

Explain the following causes of movement about the lead/lag hinge:

          (a)      conservation of angular momentum (Coriolis effect)

          (b)      Hookes joint effect

          (c)      periodic drag changes

          (d)      random changes.

50.18.4

Explain phase lag and advance angle.

 

Helicopter Flight

50.20

Hovering

50.20.2

Explain the following factors affecting ground effect:

          (a)      skid height AGL

          (b)      density altitude

          (c)      aircraft weight

          (d)      nature of the surface

          (e)      slope of the surface

           (f)      the wind.

50.20.4

Describe:

          (a)      the conditions likely to lead to over-pitching

          (b)      the symptoms of over-pitching  and

          (c)      the recovery technique for over-pitching.

50.20.6

Describe:

          (a)      the conditions likely to lead to recirculation

          (b)      the symptoms of recirculation  and

          (c)      the recovery technique for recirculation.

50.22

Forward flight

50.22.2

Explain:

          (a)      flapping to equality

          (b)      means of overcoming dissymmetry of lift

          (c)      flap-back (blow-back)

          (d)      flap-forward  and

          (e)      reverse flow.

50.22.4

Describe how inflow roll is compensated for by the pilot.

50.22.6

With the aid of the power available/power required curves:

          (a)      identify the TAS for minimum and maximum straight and level flight

          (b)      describe the factors that affect this TAS.

50.24

Climbing and descending

50.24.2

On the power available/power required curves, identify TAS for:

          (a)      maximum rate of climb

          (b)      best angle of climb.

50.24.4

With the aid of power available/power required curves, explain the effects on rate of climb or descent, angle of climb or descent, and required TAS as applicable, of:

          (a)      collective setting changes

          (b)      altitude

          (c)      aircraft weight

          (d)      density altitude

          (e)      angle of bank

           (f)      external loads  and

          (g)      the wind.

50.26

Turning

50.26.2

State the effect of angle of bank on rate of turn and power required.

50.26.4

Explain the effect of the following factors on the rate and radius of turn:

          (a)      altitude

          (b)      gross weight

          (c)      external loads  and

          (d)      the wind.

50.28

Transitioning to the hover

50.28.2

Explain the effects of the flare on:

          (a)      rotor rpm

          (b)      total rotor thrust  and

          (c)      rotor drag.

50.28.4

Describe the causes of rotor rpm changes during the flare.

50.28.6

Describe the power requirements during a zero-speed landing.

50.30

Autorotation

50.30.2

Identify, on a diagram, the dragging (stalled), driven and driving regions (sections) of a rotor disc in autorotation.

50.30.4

Describe the forces acting on the dragging (stalled), driven and driving regions of a rotor in autorotation.

50.30.6

Explain the effect of increased collective pitch on autorotation.

50.30.8

Explain the effect of rotor RPM and airspeed on autorotational rate of descent.

50.30.10

Identify on a graph, range and endurance speeds for autorotation.

50.30.12

Explain the hazards involved in operations within the avoid curve.

50.30.14

Identify, on a graph of the avoid curve, boundaries of safe operation.

50.32

Stability

50.32.2

Define convergent and divergent phugoid (oscillation).

50.32.4

Explain the differences in control power between helicopters fitted with a:

          (a)      teetering rotor

          (b)      articulated rotor

          (c)      rigid rotor.

50.32.6

Explain how control power can be improved through:

          (a)      offset flapping hinges 

          (b)      horizontal stabilisers.

50.32.8

Describe the advantages of control power on:

          (a)      C of G limits and

          (b)      maximum forward speed.

 

Hazardous Flight Conditions

50.34

Retreating blade stall

50.34.2

Describe and explain the symptoms of retreating blade stall.

50.34.4

Describe the recovery technique for retreating blade stall.

50.34.6

Explain the hazards of inappropriate control input during recovery.

50.36

Vortex ring state (settling with power)

50.36.2

With respect to vortex ring state, describe:

          (a)      the development

          (b)      the symptoms  and

          (c)      the methods of recovery.

50.36.4

Explain tail rotor vortex ring state.

50.36.6

List the conditions that can lead to tail rotor vortex ring state.

50.36.8

State the indications that differentiate between vortex ring state and a rotor stall.

50.38

Ground resonance

50.38.2

Describe the conditions likely to cause ground resonance.

50.38.4

Describe the symptoms of ground resonance.

50.38.6

Describe the recovery technique for ground resonance.

50.40

Blade sailing

50.40.2

Describe the conditions likely to lead to blade sailing.

50.40.4

Describe the recovery technique for blade sailing.

50.42

Dynamic rollover

50.42.2

Explain the factors influencing the critical angle at which dynamic rollover will occur.

50.42.4

Describe the recovery technique for dynamic rollover.

 

50.44

Mast bumping

50.44.2

Describe the forces involved during mast bumping.

50.44.4

Describe the means of avoiding mast bumping.

50.44.6

Describe the recovery technique for mast bumping.

50.46

Exceeding rotor RPM limits

50.46.2

Explain the reasons for high and low RPM limits.

50.48

Rotor stalls

50.48.2

Describe the conditions likely to lead to a rotor stall.

50.48.4

Describe the symptoms of a rotor stall.

50.48.6

Describe the recovery technique for a rotor stall.

50.50

Helicopter airframes

50.50.2

List the main components of the landing gear and describe their function and principle of operation.

50.50.4

Describe typical gear warning systems and explain their operating principles.

50.50.6

Describe the protection device to avoid gear retraction on ground.

50.50.8

Describe various methods for emergency gear extension.

50.50.10

Describe basic principle of operation of wheel brake units.

50.50.12

Describe the operating principle of the park brake system.

50.50.14

Explain the function of brake wear indicators.

50.52

Transmission systems

50.52.2

State the purpose of a rotor brake.

50.52.4

State the purpose and describe the principle of operation of the swashplate (control orbit).

50.52.6

Explain the procedures and reasons for the laboratory analysis of transmission oil samples.

50.52.8

State the reason for employing chip detectors in the transmission.

 

Rotor Systems

50.54

Main rotor systems

50.54.2

Explain the reason for sweepback design near main rotor blade tips.

50.54.4

Explain the reason for washout in the design of main rotor blades.

50.54.6

Explain the advantages of employing a “delta-three hinge” in a fully articulated rotor system.

50.54.8

Explain the purpose of employing an “offset pitch horn” in a rotor system.

50.54.10

Explain the normal methods of trimming controls in a helicopter.

50.54.12

Describe the various methods of rotor stabilisation.

50.54.14

Describe the various types of vibration which may occur in a helicopter and explain their causes and possible remedies.

50.54.16

Describe the design feature employed to reduce vibration in rotor systems.

 

50.56

Tail rotor systems     

50.56.2

Explain the advantages and disadvantages associated with shrouded (Fenestron) tail rotors.

50.56.4

Describe alternate methods of anti-torque control.

50.56.6

Describe the effect of a jammed or failed tail rotor.

50.58

Automatic flight control systems

50.58.2

Explain the function and operating principle of helicopter flight controls.

50.58.4

Explain the function and operating principle of a ‘fly-by-wire’ flight control system.

50.58.6

Explain how redundancy is obtained in flight control systems.

50.58.8

Explain the effect of a complete hydraulic system failure on flight control.

50.58.10

Explain the purpose of ‘feel systems’ in flight controls.

50.58.12

Explain the function and operating principle of an automatic flight control system (AFCS).

50.58.14

Describe the use of the automatic flight control system control panel and the operational modes available.

50.58.16

Describe the inputs, controls, indications and warnings of an automatic flight control system.

50.58.18

Explain the function and operating principle of flight envelope protection.

50.58.20

Describe the inputs, indications and warnings of flight envelope protection.

50.58.22

Describe the functions of the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC)

50.60

Hydraulics

50.60.2

Calculate the force generated, given hydraulic piston sizes and system pressure.

50.60.4

Describe the function and operating principle of the following:

          (a)      bypass valve

          (b)      selector valve

          (c)      fuse

          (d)      standpipe.

50.60.6

Explain how redundancy is obtained in hydraulic systems.

50.60.8

Describe the instruments for monitoring the hydraulic system.

50.60.10

Describe the warnings associated with the hydraulic system.

50.60.12

Describe the trends in hydraulic system design.

50.62

Electrical systems

50.62.2

Explain the meaning of the various measures of electrical power.

50.62.4

Calculate battery life given rating and voltage, and system load.

50.62.6

Explain the method of calculating power consumption in an electrical circuit.

50.62.8

Explain the function and operating principle of:

          (a)      a transformer-rectifier

          (b)      an inverter

          (c)      a rectifier

          (d)      an inductor

          (e)      a commutator

50.62.10

Explain the relative advantages and disadvantages of AC and DC systems.

50.62.12

Explain the function and operating principle of a constant speed generator drive (CSGD).

50.62.14

Explain the function and operating principle of an integrated drive generator (IDG).

50.62.16

Explain the consequences of an IDG mechanical disconnect during flight.

50.62.18

Explain the function and operating principle of a variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) drive.

50.64

Environmental control systems

50.64.2

Describe the function and principle of operation of a cabin air-conditioning system.

50.64.4

Describe the controls, indications and warnings of a cabin air-conditioning system.

50.66

Ice, rain and particle protection

50.66.2

Describe the function and operating principles of the following types of ice protection systems:

          (a)      bleed air thermal

          (b)      electrical.

50.66.4

Describe the effects of ice protection system operation on engine performance.

50.66.6

Explain the proper handling of ice protection systems.

50.66.8

Describe the operating principles of ice detectors.

50.66.10

Describe the effect of airframe, rotor and engine icing on the ground and in flight.

50.66.12

Describe windscreen heating and rain clearance systems.

 

Instruments

50.68

Ring laser gyro

50.68.2

Describe a ring laser gyro and compare it with a conventional gyro.

50.68.4

With the aid of a diagram, explain the principle of operation of a ring laser gyro.

50.68.6

State the pilot checks for serviceability.

50.70

Air data computer (ADC)

50.70.2

State the purpose of the air data computer.

50.70.4

Explain the operating principle of the air data computer.

50.70.6

Describe the ADC inputs, outputs and the supplied units.

50.70.8

With the aid of a diagram, describe the processing of the input data of an ADC.

50.70.10

Explain the backup functions of the air data computer in the case of a pressure source blockage.

50.70.12

Describe the effect of loss of input/output signal of the ADC to the pilot’s instrument indication.

 

 

50.72

 

 

Air temperature gauge

50.72.2

Define and compare the following temperatures:

          (a)      Total Air Temperature (TAT).

          (b)      Static Air Temperature (SAT).

          (c)      Outside Air Temperature (OAT).

 

Integrated Flight Instrument Systems

50.74

Flight director (FD)

50.74.2

Explain the purpose of the flight director computer.

50.74.4

Explain the operating principle of the flight director computer.

50.74.6

Interpret the information provided by the split cue and integrated cue flight director command bars.

50.74.8

List the performance and navigation parameter guidance provided by the flight director.

50.74.10

Explain the function of the flight mode annunciator.

50.74.12

Describe the task of the gain programme in the approach mode.

50.76

Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)

50.76.2

Explain the operating principle of the EFIS

50.76.4

Describe the inputs available to a typical EFIS.

50.76.6

Describe the outputs from a typical EFIS.

50.76.8

State the function and describe the operation of the EFIS control panel.

50.76.10

Given appropriate drawing of a typical aircraft installation, explain the EFIS function and information interchange.

50.76.12

Describe the switching options in case of EFIS display failure.

50.76.14

Describe the function of the Electronic Attitude Director Indicator/Primary Flight Display (EADI/PFD).

50.76.16

Identify the information available on the EADI/PFD.

50.76.18

Describe the colour coding on the EADI/PFD.

50.76.20

Describe the function of the Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator/Navigation Display (EHSI/ND).

50.76.22

Name the typical display modes for EHSI/ND.

50.76.24

Given suitable diagrams of instrument presentation, use an EHSI/ND to determine an aircraft’s track, position and/or orientation.

50.76.26

Identify the information available in the different modes of the EHSI/ND.

50.76.28

Describe the colour coding on the EHSI/ND.

50.78

Electronic engine displays (ECAM, EICAS)

50.78.2

Explain the purpose of the Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) system and Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

50.78.4

Describe the information available from an ECAM/EICAS system.

50.78.6

Describe the inhibiting functions in relation to different flight phases.

50.78.8

Describe the display units (DU) of ECAM/EICAS System.

50.78.10

Interpret the important colours used by the DU’s.

50.78.12

State the redundancy provisions, in the case of a DU failure.

 

50.80

Flight management system (FMS)

50.80.2

Describe the two primary functions of a Flight Management System (FMS).

50.80.4

Explain the operating principle of an FMS.

50.80.6

Describe the main components of an FMS.

50.80.8

Explain the function and operating principle of the attitude heading reference system (AHRS).

50.80.10

Explain how pilots interface with an FMS.

50.80.12

Describe the inputs the FMS accesses to achieve the navigation function.

50.80.14

Explain how the FMS achieves its performance functions in the various modes.

50.80.16

Explain how the flight guidance functions are achieved.

50.80.18

Describe how the FMS functions are monitored.

 

Warning and Recording Systems

50.82

Master warning system

50.82.2

Explain the function of a master warning system.

50.82.4

Explain the operating principle of a master warning system.

50.82.6

Explain the meaning of the following four degrees of urgency:

          (a)      warnings

          (b)      cautions

          (c)      advisories

          (d)      status messages.

50.82.8

Explain and give examples of:

          (a)      visual alerts

          (b)      aural alerts.

50.82.10

Explain the reasons for inhibiting alerts.

50.84

Altitude alerter system

50.84.2

Explain the function of an altitude alerter system.

50.84.4

Describe how to operate the altitude alerter system and how to interpret the information.

50.84.6

Describe the comparative relationship between the selected altitude and the actual altitude.

50.84.8

Explain how the system is monitored.

50.86

Radar altimeter

50.86.2

State the function of a radar altimeter.

50.86.4

Explain the principle of operation of the radar altimeter.

50.86.6

Identify the frequency band in which the radar altimeter operates.

50.86.8

State the purpose of the decision height warning light.

50.86.10

Describe the operator control options for a radio altimeter.

50.86.12

State the maximum range for indication.

50.86.14

List instruments or units which receive altitude information from the radio altimeter.

50.86.16

Describe the errors of the radio altimeter.

50.88

Rotor overspeed / underspeed warning

50.88.2

Explain the function of the rotor overspeed/underspeed warning system

50.88.4

Explain the principle of operation of the rotor overspeed/underspeed warning system.

50.88.6

Describe the inputs and outputs of the rotor overspeed/underspeed warning system.

50.90

Automatic engine data recording system (AEDRS)

50.90.2

Explain the purpose and function of the AEDRS.

50.90.4

Explain the method of downloading information from the AEDRS.

50.90.6

Describe the method of actuation of the AEDRS.

50.92

Terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS)

50.92.2

Describe the function of the terrain awareness and warning system.

50.92.4

Explain the principle of operation of TAWS.

50.92.6

Identify the standard TAWS warning profiles.

50.92.8

List and describe the different warning modes.

50.92.10

Explain the relationship between TAWS and EFIS navigation displays.

50.94

Aircraft collision avoidance system (ACAS)

50.94.2

Describe the function of the ACAS.

50.94.4

Explain the principle of operation of ACAS.

50.94.6

Identify the equipment with which an intruder must be fitted in order to be detected by ACAS.

50.94.8

Describe the appropriate ACAS graphic symbols.

50.94.10

Define a Resolution Advisory (RA) and a Traffic Advisory (TA).

50.94.12

State the minimum equipment requirements for the issuing of a Resolution Advisory and a Traffic Advisory.

50.94.14

Describe the proximity requirements for the issuing of a Resolution Advisory and a Traffic Advisory.

50.94.16

Describe ACAS “escape manoeuvres”.

50.94.18

State how many “escape manoeuvres” ACAS equipment can calculate simultaneously.

50.96

Fire warning and protection systems

50.96.2

Describe the indications of typical fire warning systems.

50.96.4

Describe the principles, features and parameters of typical fire protection systems.

50.96.6

Describe the operation of unit-type and continuous loop fire detectors.

50.96.8

Describe common fire extinguishing systems and the limitations with their use.

50.96.10

List the common extinguishing agents and state any precautions with their use.

50.96.12

Describe the various types of fire likely to occur on a helicopter and the preferred extinguishing agents for each.

50.98

Flight data recorder

50.98.2

Explain the purpose of the flight data recorder.

50.98.4

Describe the parameters that are recorded by the flight data recorder.

50.98.6

Describe how data from the flight data recorder can be accessed.

50.100

Cockpit voice recorder

50.100.2

Explain the purpose of the cockpit voice recorder.

50.100.4

Describe the parameters that are recorded by the cockpit voice recorder.

50.100.6

Describe how data from the cockpit voice recorder can be accessed.

 


Subject No. 41        ATPL Flight Planning (Helicopter)

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate.

SubTopic

Syllabus Item

41.2

Definitions terminology and abbreviations

41.2.2

Define:

          (a)      track required

          (b)      true and magnetic track

          (c)      wind velocity (W/V)

          (d)      wind angle

          (e)      wind correction angle (WCA)

           (f)      head wind

          (g)      tail wind

          (h)      cross wind

           (i)      true heading

           (j)      magnetic heading

          (k)      compass heading

           (l)      drift (planned & actual)

        (m)      track made good (TMG)

          (n)      port

          (o)      starboard

          (p)      fixed reserve (FR)

          (q)      variable reserve (VR)

           (r)      dead (deduced) reckoning

          (s)      track error (TE)

           (t)      closing angle (CA)

          (u)      visual flight rules (VFR).

          (v)      instrument flight rules (IFR)

        (w)      alternate (ALTN)

          (x)      minimum flight altitude (MFA)

          (y)      one engine inoperative (OEI)

          (z)      point of no return (PNR)

       (aa)      critical point/equi-time point (CP/ETP)

      (bb)      point of no return - one engine inoperative (PNR/OEI)

       (cc)      critical point - one engine inoperative (CP/OEI)

      (dd)      pressure altitude (PA)

       (ee)      density altitude (DA)

        (ff)      estimated time of departure (ETD)

      (gg)      actual time of departure (ATD)

      (hh)      estimated elapsed time (EET)/estimated time interval (ETI)

         (ii)      estimated time of arrival (ETA)  and

         (jj)      actual time of arrival (ATA).

41.4

Route selection

41.4.2

Describe the factors to be considered when selecting a VFR cross-country navigation route.

41.4.4

Describe the factors to be considered when selecting an IFR cross-country navigation route.

41.4.6

Describe the factors to be considered when selecting altitudes at which to fly in the cruise.

41.4.8

Determine the most fuel efficient cruise altitude.

41.4.10

Describe the factors to be considered when selecting alternate routes and destination alternates.

41.6

Navigation plan preparation

41.6.2

Derive, from sample Company Operations Manual data, the following:

          (a)      TAS

          (b)      climb speeds and time allowances

          (c)      descent speeds and time allowances.

41.6.4

Interpret and assess meteorological information contained in:

          (a)      area forecasts (ARFOR)

          (b)      meteorological reports (METAR/SPECI)

          (c)      trend forecasts (TTL)

          (d)      aerodrome forecasts (TAF)

          (e)      SIGMET

           (f)      special aerodrome reports (SPAR)

          (g)      automatic terminal information service (ATIS)

          (h)      aerodrome and weather information broadcast (AWIB)

           (i)      (i)    basic weather reports (BWR).

41.6.6

Complete flight plan calculations for an IFR cross-country flight, including:

          (a)      top of climb point

          (b)      level cruise portion

          (c)      top of descent point

          (d)      TAS

          (e)      tracks

           (f)      pressure altitudes

          (g)      density altitudes

          (h)      estimated wind velocities

           (i)      estimated temperatures

           (j)      headings

          (k)      groundspeeds

           (l)      distances

        (m)      EETs

          (n)      ETAs.

41.8

Fuel planning

41.8.2

Derive, from sample Company Operations Manual data, the following:

          (a)      fuel capacities – useable

          (b)      standard fuel flows

          (c)      standard fuel allowances.

41.8.4

Calculate, using sample Company Operations Manual data, the following:

          (a)      fuel flow for a given leg/flight

          (b)      expected fuel burn off, on a given leg, two engines operating and one engine inoperative (OEI)

          (c)      minimum reserve fuel for a given flight

          (d)      minimum fuel required on a given flight

          (e)      maximum holding time

           (f)      specific air range

          (g)      fuel required to the CP/ETP

          (h)      fuel required from the CP/ETP to the departure, destination or alternate.

41.10

En-route diversion calculations

41.10.2

Calculate:

          (a)      time and distance to the point of no return (PNR)

          (b)      time and distance to the critical point/equi-time point (CP/ETP).

41.10.4

Estimate position following diversion off track.

Subject No. 51        ATPL Performance and Loading (Helicopter)

Each subject has been given a subject number and each topic within that subject a topic number. These reference numbers will be used on knowledge deficiency reports and will provide valuable feedback to the examination candidate.

Sub Topic

Syllabus Item

 

Helicopter Performance

51.2

Definitions Terminology and Abbreviations

51.2.2

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      alternate (ALTN)

          (b)      best rate of climb (Vy or BROC)

          (c)      best rate of climb - single engine (Vyse or BROC)

          (d)      Category A operations

          (e)      Category B operations

           (f)      clearway

          (g)      continued take-off (CTO)

          (h)      continued take-off distance (CTOD)

           (i)      critical decision point (CDP)

           (j)      density altitude (DA)

          (k)      elevation (ELV, ELEV or Elev)

           (l)      engine air particle separator (EAPS)

        (m)      fpm

          (n)      HW

          (o)      in ground effect (IGE)

          (p)      instrument flight rules (IFR)

          (q)      landing decision point (LDP)

           (r)      mean sea level (MSL)

          (s)      minimum flight altitude (MFA)

           (t)      one engine inoperative (OEI)

          (u)      outside air temperature (OAT)

          (v)      out of ground effect (OGE)

        (w)      pressure altitude (PA)

          (x)      QNH

          (y)      rate of climb (ROC)

          (z)      rate of descent (ROD)

       (aa)      rejected take-off (RTO)

      (bb)      rejected take-off distance (RTOD)

       (cc)      RWY

      (dd)      stopway

       (ee)      take-off safety speed (V2 or VTOSS)

        (ff)      TW

      (gg)      visual flight rules (VFR).

51.4

Factors of performance

51.4.2

Explain the effect of altitude on a helicopter’s performance.

51.4.4

Given the elevation and QNH of a location, calculate the pressure altitude.

51.4.6

Given a standard altimeter, determine the pressure altitude.

51.4.8

Given the pressure altitude and air temperature of a location, calculate the density altitude.

51.4.10

Given the elevation of a location, air temperature deviation from ISA, and QNH, calculate the ambient temperature.

51.4.12

Explain the effect of a change in air temperature on the power required to hover IGE or OGE.

51.4.14

Explain the effect of humidity on a helicopter’s performance.

51.4.16

Describe the effect of a change in humidity on the density altitude of a location.

51.4.18

Explain the effect of the following on a helicopter’s performance:

          (a)      aircraft gross weight

          (b)      external stores and loads

          (c)      the wind.

51.4.20

Calculate the headwind and/or crosswind components, given wind velocity and the helicopter’s flight path.

51.6

Derivation of operational performance standards

51.6.2

Derive, from sample Company Operations Manual data, the following:

          (a)      the factors which limit the maximum take-off weight

          (b)      the maximum gross take-off weight limitation, for day VFR operations

          (c)      the en-route performance capability, for day VFR operations

          (d)      the approach and landing performance capability, for day VFR operations

          (e)      the maximum gross take-off weight limitation, for IFR and night VFR operations

           (f)      the en-route performance capability, for IFR and night VFR operations

          (g)      the approach and landing performance capability, for IFR and night VFR operations

          (h)      the meaning of “OEI configuration”

           (i)      the missed approach climb gradient capability, for IFR and night VFR operations

           (j)      the rate of climb required to achieve a net one percent gradient of climb

          (k)      the requirements for a OEI landing area

           (l)      the weight limitations for helideck take-off and landing.

51.8

Calculation of performance planning information

51.8.2

Describe the:

          (a)      Category A (Performance Class 1) take-off technique.

          (b)      Category B take-off technique.

51.8.4

Calculate the maximum take-off weight (MTOW), restricted by the following performance limitations:

          (a)      Category A (Performance Class 1) operations

          (b)      Category B operations

          (c)      climb gradient restrictions

          (d)      OGE hover capability

          (e)      en-route restrictions

           (f)      landing restrictions, both Categories A and B.

51.8.6

Calculate the critical decision point (CDP) and take-off safety speed (V2/VTOSS), given the available field length and conditions.

51.8.8

Calculate the rejected take-off (RTO) and continued take-off (CTO) distances, in given conditions.

51.8.10

Calculate the required field length, at a given take-off weight and conditions, using the Category A (Performance Class 1) take-off technique.

51.8.12

Calculate the take-off distance required, at a given take-off weight and conditions, using the Category B take-off technique.

51.8.14

Calculate the payload available given a performance limited take-off weight.

51.8.16

Calculate the climb performance capability of a helicopter:

          (a)      two engines operating at maximum continuous power

          (b)      two engines operating at normal cruise power

          (c)      one engine inoperative (OEI) at 2½ minute power at take-off safety speed

          (d)      one engine inoperative (OEI) at maximum continuous power.

51.8.18

Calculate the maximum weight, at a given pressure altitude, temperature and configuration, that a helicopter is capable of hovering OGE with two engines operating.

51.8.20

Calculate the maximum pressure altitude, at a given weight, temperature and configuration, that a helicopter is capable of hovering OGE with two engines operating.

51.8.22

Calculate the maximum cruise weight, at a given pressure altitude, configuration and conditions.

51.8.24

Describe the:

          (a)      Category A (Performance Class 1) landing technique

          (b)      alternate Category A landing technique

          (c)      Category B landing technique.

51.8.26

Calculate the landing distance for a helicopter operating to:

          (a)      Category A (Performance Class 1) landing technique

          (b)      Category B landing technique.

51.8.28

Calculate the landing weight for a helicopter operating to:

          (a)      Category A (Performance Class 1) landing technique

          (b)      Category B landing technique.

51.8.30

Given a typical height/velocity diagram derive, for a given airspeed, the band of heights from which a forced landing is not possible following an engine failure.

51.8.32

Explain the effects of the following on the size and shape of the avoid area of a height/velocity diagram:

          (a)      gross weight

          (b)      altitude

          (c)      density altitude

          (d)      parasite drag

          (e)      carriage of a sling load.

 

Helicopter Weight and Balance

51.10

Definitions terminology and abbreviations

51.10.2

Explain the meaning of the following:

          (a)      arm (moment arm)

          (b)      datum

          (c)      moment (including units used)

          (d)      centre of gravity (CofG or CG)

          (e)      centre of gravity range and limits

           (f)      longitudinal centre of gravity

          (g)      lateral centre of gravity

          (h)      station

           (i)      index units

           (j)      floor limits

          (k)      loading zones

           (l)      approved load control system

        (m)      basic empty weight/aircraft empty weight (AEW)

          (n)      empty weight centre of gravity position

          (o)      basic operating weight/aircraft prepared for service weight (APS)

          (p)      operating empty weight (OEW)

          (q)      payload (commercial load)

           (r)      zero fuel weight (ZFW)

          (s)      ramp weight (RW)

           (t)      gross weight (GW)

          (u)      take-off weight (TOW)

          (v)      maximum take-off weight (MTOW)

        (w)      landing weight (LW)

          (x)      maximum landing weight (MLW)

          (y)      useable fuel

          (z)      fuel on board (FOB)

       (aa)      fuel burn off (FBO)

      (bb)      (ab) centre of gravity envelope

       (cc)      (ac) the specific gravity and the weight of Jet A-1.

51.12

Weight

51.12.2

Explain the effect of operating a helicopter outside of its weight limits.

51.12.4

Solve the following loading problems:

          (a)      calculate the take-off weight of a helicopter

          (b)      calculate the landing weight of a helicopter

          (c)      calculate the landing weight limited take-off weight

          (d)      calculate the weight of a given volume of fuel, given the fuel’s specific gravity

          (e)      convert between US gallons and litres

           (f)      convert between pounds and kilograms

          (g)      calculate the payload available given a maximum take-off weight

          (h)      calculate the payload available given a maximum zero fuel weight

           (i)      calculate the allowable load in various compartments.

51.14

Centre of gravity

51.14.2

Explain the principles of helicopter balance.

51.14.4

Explain the effect of operating a helicopter outside of the centre of gravity limits.

51.14.6

Calculate the aircraft empty weight (AEW) and centre of gravity details, given an alteration to the helicopter’s configuration.

51.14.8

Calculate the longitudinal centre of gravity position for a helicopter:

          (a)      at take-off

          (b)      at any time during flight

          (c)      on landing.

51.14.10

Calculate the lateral centre of gravity position for a helicopter:

          (a)      at take-off

          (b)      at any time during flight

          (c)      on landing.

51.14.12

Plot a helicopter’s longitudinal centre of gravity position on a graph showing the centre of gravity limits.

51.14.14

Explain the effect of external sling loads on the centre of gravity position.

51.14.16

Explain the effect of external winch loads on the centre of gravity position.

51.14.18

Solve the following loading problems:

          (a)      loading or offloading weight and find a new centre of gravity position

          (b)      loading or offloading weight to place the centre of gravity at a given station

          (c)      loading or offloading weight at a given station without exceeding centre of gravity limits

          (d)      moving weight from one station to another and finding new centre of gravity position.

51.14.20

Explain the likely effect of fuel burn on the centre of gravity position.

51.14.22

Calculate the movement of centre of gravity due to fuel burn off.

51.14.24

Explain the likely effect of a displaced lateral centre of gravity on the position of the cyclic control.

 

 


5. APPENDIX IV—ATPL Aeroplane Flight Test Syllabus

Acceptable performance parameters for the issue of an ATPL(A), are those published in the CAA “Flight Test Standards Guide ATPL Issue-Aeroplane”.

Flight Test Syllabus

General requirements

The test is to include an oral general knowledge test followed by a pilot competency test. Failure to pass in any item of the test may result in the applicant and the instructor (where applicable) being advised of the failure aspects and the further training believed necessary before a further flight test may be undertaken.

An ATPL(A) issue flight test includes all elements of the instrument rating, is conducted over a route of at least 50 nm and is to include a diversion to an alternate.

The candidate is to demonstrate a professional attitude to aviation by arriving punctually, fit for flying and suitably attired.

The candidate is to present, for the examiner’s inspection, their summarised and certified pilot log book, written exam credits, knowledge deficiency reports with (KDR) improvement content listed against rule references and certified, a current AIPNZ Volume 1,2 and 3 and appropriate charts or the Jeppesen equivalent.

Aeroplane equipment and facilities required for the flight test

The aeroplane is to be a multi-engine aeroplane of at least 5700 kilograms MCTOW or a multi-engine aeroplane which the Director has approved as performing to the equivalent operational standard as an aeroplane used in airline operations with:

  • fully functioning dual flight controls
  • those instruments essential to the manoeuvres planned to be demonstrated during the flight visible to both pilots without excessive parallax error
  • at least three-point lap-and-sash harness
  • intercommunication equipment of an approved type
  • an acceptable means of simulating instrument flight.

All or selected manoeuvres may be demonstrated by means of a flight simulator approved for that purpose by the Director.

In all cases, the aircraft is to be at a weight that will give a positive indication of the candidate’s competency to fly the aircraft in the most adverse configuration appropriate to the manoeuvre being demonstrated.

The candidate is to provide adequate and private facilities for briefing prior to and after the flight test.

 

 

 

General knowledge test

In the following areas the candidate will:

Licence privileges

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of ATPL privileges and currency requirements.

Aircraft documents

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the certificate of airworthiness, aircraft technical log, flight manual and associated pilot’s operating handbook.

Meteorology

  • Obtain and analyse, aviation meteorological information including ARFOR’s, SIGWX , wind and temperature charts, TAFs, METARS, SPECIs and SIGMETs and apply it to the planned flight.
  • Make a sound decision, based on all available pre-flight planning data, whether or not to proceed with the flight.

Operational environment

  • Apply knowledge and use of the AIP volumes 2/3 and appropriate charts, or the Jeppesen equivalent, combined with NOTAMs and AIP supplement information (including RAIM prediction where applicable) to the proposed flight so as to make a sound decision whether or not to proceed with the flight.

Flight planning

  • Prepare an operational flight plan, at appropriate IFR cruising levels, over a route of at least 50 nm along promulgated routes between two aerodromes (at least one of which is controlled) and to include consideration of a suitable alternate.

Fuel management

  • Accurately calculate fuel requirements including reserves and contingency for an air transport operation under IFR in accordance with Part 121/125.
  • Establish fuel on board, accurately calculate endurance and reserves and operate the fuel system in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual.

Aircraft performance and limitations

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the effect of environmental conditions on aeroplane performance and the application of the performance charts in relation to air transport operations under Part 121/125.
  • Accurately calculate the take‑off and landing distances relating to air transport operations considering density altitude, wind, terrain and other relevant conditions.
  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the aircraft’s limitations and performance requirements in respect to departure, en-route and instrument approach requirements.

Aircraft loading

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the aircraft’s weight limitations, including fuel, payload, load distribution and security.
  • Accurately calculate the centre of gravity position for take-off and landing.

Aircraft airworthiness and technical documentation

  • Exhibit knowledge of the airworthiness certificate, technical log, flight manual and associated operations manual and evaluate the airworthiness state of the aircraft.

External pre-flight inspection

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the aeroplane type by completing the external pre-flight inspection in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual or organisation’s documentation.

Cockpit preparation

  • Demonstrate the pre-flight cockpit preparation and flight management system initialisation, data insertion and confirmation (if applicable) in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual or organisation’s documentation.

Crew briefings (conduct and quality)

  • Establish an environment for open interactive communication with emphasis on the importance of questioning, offering information and critique.
  • Establish a “team concept” for the management of the flight including the operation of automated systems and the division of labour.
  • Cover pertinent safety and operational issues, identifying potential problems, provide guidelines for crew actions and include cabin crew as part of the team (if applicable).

Engine start

  • Perform the normal engine start procedure and complete the required checklists in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual or the organisation’s documentation.
  • Recognise an abnormal start and/or demonstrate the actions required in the event of an abnormal start or engine fire.

Taxi

  • Perform brake and instrument serviceability checks, control speed, recognise hazards, check and position controls for the existing wind conditions (as appropriate) and park at the holding point in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual and recommended practices.

Pre-take-off and pre-departure preparation

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the crosswind, cloud base and visibility limitations for take-off.
  • Complete all appropriate pre-take-off procedures, establish that the cabin is secure, obtain clearances (as required) and provide an appropriate crew pre-take-off briefing including go/no-go criteria.

Take-off roll

  • Complete line up checks in accordance with the aircraft’s checklist ensuring the correct runway is being used and that the approach, runway and take-off path are clear.
  • Track the runway centreline, recognise and acknowledge the go/no-go decision point, rotate at the recommended Vr to establish the appropriate pitch attitude for the recommended climb and trim the aircraft.

Rejected take-off

  • Recognise an abnormal situation (actual or simulated) which necessitates a rejected take-off and carry out the appropriate emergency procedure, maintaining control of the aircraft and reducing speed to stop within the ASDA.
  • Make use of the QRH to follow up the recall emergency actions and nominate an appropriate plan of action.

Engine failure at or after V1

  • Recognise an engine failure, correctly identify which engine has become inoperative and maintain directional control of the aircraft.
  • Set appropriate power on the remaining engine(s) to ensure adequate performance whilst flying an appropriate airspeed and carry out the appropriate emergency procedure using the aircraft’s emergency checklist or QRH to follow up the recall emergency actions and subsequently nominate an appropriate plan of action.

Transition to instrument flight and initial climb

  • Transition from visual flight to instrument flight at the published IFR take-off minima.

Instrument departure procedures

  • Depart in accordance with the promulgated SID, departure procedure or ATS instructions.

Climb procedures

  • Comply with IFR en-route climb procedures, and applicable altimeter settings.
  • Maintain required tracks, report position as applicable to ATS and maintain an in-flight navigation, fuel and radio log.

Cruise procedures

  • Comply with IFR en-route cruise procedures, maintain track, make appropriate position reports and maintain an in-flight navigation, fuel and radio log.

Descent, approach and landing preparation

  • Obtain appropriate weather and operational information relating to the descent, approach and landing.
  • Calculate an appropriate top of descent point and review endurance and fuel reserves.
  • Review and brief the appropriate arrival, approach, landing, missed approach, holding, diversion and ground taxi procedures (as applicable).

Descent procedures

  • Comply with IFR en-route descent procedures, and applicable altimeter settings.
  • Maintain required tracks, report position as applicable to ATS and maintain an in-flight navigation, fuel and radio log.

Holding

  • Enter a holding pattern in accordance with the standard sector entry, within the applicable speed range, at or above the minimum holding altitude.
  • Use the lesser of a rate one turn or 25º angle of bank in the hold and adjust the outbound leg to compensate for drift as required to achieve the inbound leg (but not beyond any DME limiting distance).

Initial approach procedures

  • Anticipate and identify station passage, configure the aircraft appropriately to the approach category or class (as applicable) and establish on the DME/GPS arc or complete the procedure turn including timing (as applicable).
  • Maintain the required track and descent profile in accordance with ATS clearances and/or approach limits.

Radar vectoring for an approach

  • Position the aircraft under radar vectoring, to a predetermined position or fix in an appropriate configuration, to intercept a specified track whilst maintaining orientation by monitoring other navigation aids.

Precision approach

  • Demonstrate an ILS approach in accordance with published procedures, tracks and descent profile.
  • Configure the aircraft to achieve an appropriate final approach speed so that a landing could be made and commence the go-around (if applicable) from not below DA/H.

Non-precision approach

  • Demonstrate a non-precision approach in accordance with published procedures, tracks and descent profile.
  • Configure the aircraft to conform with the appropriate approach category so that a landing could be made and commence the go-around (if applicable) no later than the designated missed approach point.

Instrument approach to circle visually for approach and landing

  • Transition from an instrument approach to a visual circuit, for a landing on a runway at least 80º to the instrument final approach track, within the published visibility minima and in a configuration appropriate to visual manoeuvring, so as to maintain visual reference at the circling minima for the category of aircraft and aerodrome concerned.

One engine inoperative performance

  • Maintain control of the aircraft after the failure of an engine, prior to or during an approach, and complete the approach.
  • Use checklists to follow up memory/recall items and make radio calls as appropriate.
  • Initiate a one engine inoperative missed approach from the minimum descent altitude in accordance with the published procedure.
  • Subsequently demonstrate an appreciation of the effect of an engine failure on the aircraft’s performance by nominating an appropriate plan of action.

Missed approach procedure

  • Perform a missed approach when required and in accordance with the published missed approach procedure.

Diversion procedures

  • Initiate a diversion (as required) with due regard to available fuel, ATS requirements and alternate weather.

Normal landing

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the cloud base and visibility limitations for a normal landing. Use flap as applicable and achieve the nominated target threshold speed.

Crosswind landing

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the aircraft’s crosswind limitations and the ability to assess the crosswind component.
  • Demonstrate a crosswind landing (up to the aircraft’s maximum), achieve the nominated threshold target speed and correct for drift to touch down aligned with the runway.

One engine inoperative landing

  • Demonstrate a one engine inoperative landing using flap as applicable, and achieve the nominated target threshold speed.

Taxi to parking

  • Reconfigure the aircraft appropriately once clear of the active runway and perform a brake check prior to entering the parking area.
  • Park the aircraft with due regard to marshalling directions, wind direction and other aircraft or objects (as applicable).

Engine shutdown and securing the aircraft

  • Complete the shutdown procedure in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual or checklist, supervise the passengers (if appropriate), secure the aircraft (as applicable) and complete all post flight documentation.

Crew self-evaluation (debriefing/operational review/critique)

  • Debrief at an appropriate time, involving the entire crew (where appropriate) to give constructive, specific, objective feedback (including positive and negative aspects) based on observable behaviour.
  • Accept critique objectively and non-defensively.

Threat and error management (TEM)

  • Recognise, assess and manage potential threats in the performance of various tasks, in accordance with TEM techniques.
  • Follow SOPs with evident situational awareness to avoid or trap errors which may occur in the performance of various tasks, in accordance with TEM techniques.
  • Apply strategies which mitigate the effects of errors that occur, in accordance with TEM techniques.

Communications process and decision making (inquiry/advocacy/assertion)

  • Encourage questions regarding crew actions and decisions, answer questions openly and non-defensively, seek information from others, question the status and programming of automated systems, develop a challenge and response environment and persist appropriately until there is a clear resolution and decision.

Communications process and decision making (communications/decisions)

  • State operational decisions to other crew members, acknowledge decisions made by other crew members and share the overall situational status with all crew members and/or others (as appropriate).
  • Provide an atmosphere conducive to open and free communication and encourage crew members to state their own ideas, opinions and recommendations.
  • Verbalise and acknowledge all entries and changes to automated systems.

Team building (leadership/followership/concern for tasks)

  • Utilise all available resources and manage time available to achieve the most effective operation possible.
  • Coordinate flight deck activities to establish and maintain a proper balance between authority and assertiveness whilst acting decisively when the situation requires.
  • Recognise and deal with the demands on resources posed by automated systems when programming could reduce situational awareness or create work overload.

Team building (interpersonal relationships/group climate)

  • Demonstrate the ability to remain calm under stressful conditions and adapt to other crew members personalities and personal characteristics.
  • Ensure the appropriate group climate is established and maintained and recognise the effect of stress on fatigue and performance.
  • Recognise the symptoms of stress and fatigue in self and other crew members and during times of low communication keeps a check on crew members.

Workload management and situational awareness (preparation/planning/vigilance)

  • Demonstrate situational awareness by sharing the “model” of what is happening with other crew members and monitor all instruments and communications, sharing relevant information with the rest of the crew.
  • Demonstrate awareness of the effects of stress on vigilance, monitor the performance of crew members and avoid “tunnel vision” by stating or asking for the “big picture”.
  • Include all crew members in the planning process to prepare for contingency situations (approaches, weather) and verbally ensure appropriate crew are aware of the plan.
  • Provide sufficient time for the programming of automated systems and ensure all relevant crew members are aware of the status and changes to automated systems.

Workload management and situational awareness (work distribution/distraction avoidance)

  • Distribute tasks and communicate priorities to maximise efficiency. Admit and report work overloads and recognise overloads in others.
  • Prioritise secondary operational tasks and ensure that non-operational interaction does not interfere with necessary tasks.
  • Recognise the potential for distractions posed by automated systems and take appropriate preventative action.

Communications with cabin crew, company and passengers

  • Communicate relevant information to cabin crew, company and passengers when appropriate.

Completion of checks and use of checklists

  • Use appropriate checklists as applicable to the phase of flight.

ATS procedures and compliance

  • Obtain ATIS information when appropriate (if available) and obtain, record, read back and comply with clearances and ATS instructions when applicable.

RTF procedures

  • Listen to communications from ground and other aircraft and use the aircraft’s radio to communicate clearly and concisely using appropriate aeronautical phraseology at all times with appropriate assertiveness.
  • Tune, test and operate the aircraft’s transponder as required.

Loss of communications procedure

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the procedure to be followed in the event of a communications failure during various phases of flight.

Aircraft handling by reference to instruments

  • Demonstrate straight and level flight and turning manoeuvres (using an angle of bank appropriate to the procedure or manoeuvre) with smooth and coordinated control applications whilst maintaining the nominated climb and descent airspeed, heading (as applicable) and balanced flight.

Use of automation

  • Carry out auto pilot serviceability checks, effectively utilise the autopilot and monitor its performance in flight.
  • State (at examiner discretion) the limitations and capabilities of the autopilot and recognise autopilot failure in flight.
  • Execute an approach using the autopilot and transition to a manual approach at the autopilot limiting altitude and/or initiate the missed approach utilising the autopilot missed approach mode.

Navaid management and tracking

  • Tune, identify and test the aircraft’s navigational equipment in accordance with company procedures and the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Intercept and track specified tracks using the navigation aids fitted to the aircraft.

Systems operation and procedures

  • Operate, manage and monitor the aircraft’s systems in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual and/or company procedures.

Management of a systems malfunction

  • Identify and interpret indications of a system malfunction and preform the appropriate procedure whilst maintaining control of the aircraft and its flight path.

Emergency equipment

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the location, purpose and use of emergency equipment.

Unusual attitudes (upset recovery)

  • Demonstrate the ability to recover from unusual attitudes as appropriate to the aircraft size and type.

Management of airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) advisories

  • Interpret and react appropriately to ACAS advisories, preforming the appropriate Resolution Advisory (RA) actions.

Go-around from a ground proximity warning system (GPWS) alert (if applicable)

  • Recognise, react appropriately and perform the appropriate recovery actions in response to a GPWS alert.

Recovery from a windshear encounter

  • Identify and react appropriately, performing appropriate manoeuvres, to recover from a wind shear encounter.

Knowledge of flight rules

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Aviation Rules pertaining to multi-crew IFR flight in accordance with Part 125 and/or Part 121 air operations.

Adherence to the organisation’s standard operating procedures (SOPs)

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the organisation’s SOPs and the need to adhere to them.
  • Demonstrate adherence to the organisation’s SOPs and set crew expectations for handling deviations from SOPs.

Lookout in visual meteorology conditions (VMC)

  • Maintain a scan, both on the ground and in the air, to maintain separation from other aircraft and terrain during operations in VMC.
  • Communicate traffic and terrain information to crew.


6. APPENDIX V—ATPL Helicopter Flight Test Syllabus

Acceptable performance parameters for the issue of an ATPL Helicopter are those published in the “Flight Test Standards Guide ATPL Issue – Helicopter”.

Flight Test Syllabus

General requirements

The test is to include an oral general knowledge test followed by a pilot competency test. Failure to pass in any item of the test may result in the applicant and the instructor (where applicable) being advised of the failure aspects and the further training believed necessary before a further flight test may be undertaken.

The ATPL (H) issue flight test includes elements of the instrument rating, conducted over a route of at least 25 nm and a visual handling demonstration.

The candidate is to demonstrate a professional attitude to aviation by arriving punctually for the flight test, suitably attired and fit for flying.

The candidate is to present, for the examiner’s inspection, their summarised and certified pilot log book, written exam credits, knowledge deficiency reports (KDRs) improvement content listed against rule references and certified, current AIPNZ Volume 1,2, 3 and 4 and appropriate charts or the Jeppesen equivalent.

Helicopter, equipment and facilities required for the flight test

The helicopter is to be multi-engine and approved for IFR operations fitted with:

  • fully functioning dual flight controls
  • those instruments essential to the manoeuvres planned to be demonstrated during the flight visible to both pilots without excessive parallax error
  • at least three-point lap-and-sash harness
  • intercommunication equipment of an approved type
  • an acceptable means of simulating instrument flight.

All or selected manoeuvres may be demonstrated by means of a flight simulator approved for that purpose by the Director.

In all cases, the helicopter is to be at a weight that will give a positive indication of the candidate’s competency to fly the aircraft in the most adverse configuration appropriate to the manoeuvre being demonstrated.

The candidate is to provide adequate and private facilities for briefing prior to and after the flight test.

General knowledge test

In the following areas, the candidate will:

Licence privileges

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of ATPL privileges and currency requirements.

Aircraft documents

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the certificate of airworthiness, aircraft technical log, flight manual and associated pilot’s operating handbook.

Meteorology

  • Obtain and analyse, aviation meteorological information including ARFORs, SIGWX, wind and temperature charts, TAFs, METARS and SPECIs with associated, SIGMETs and apply it to the planned flight.
  • Make a sound decision, based on all available pre-flight planning data, whether or not to proceed with the flight.

Operational environment

  • Apply knowledge and use of the AIP volumes 2,3, 4 and appropriate charts, or the Jeppesen equivalent, combined with NOTAMs and AIP supplement information (including RAIM prediction where applicable) to the proposed flight so as to make a sound decision whether or not to proceed with the flight.

Flight planning

  • Prepare an operational flight plan, at appropriate IFR cruising levels, over a route of at least 25 nm along promulgated routes between two aerodromes/heliports.

Fuel management

  • Accurately calculate fuel requirements including reserves and contingency for an air transport operation under Part 135.
  • Establish fuel on board, accurately calculate endurance and reserves and operate the fuel system in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual.

Helicopter performance and limitations

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the effect of environmental conditions on helicopter performance and the application of performance charts in relation to air transport operations under Part 135.
  • Accurately calculate the Category A take-off and landing distances, IGE and OGE hover ceiling and OEI climb performance relating to air transport operations considering density altitude, wind, terrain and other relevant conditions.
  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the aircraft’s limitations and performance requirements in respect to departure, en-route and instrument approach requirements.

Helicopter loading

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the helicopter’s weight limitations, including fuel, payload, load distribution and security.
  • Accurately calculate the centre of gravity position for take-off and landing.

Helicopter airworthiness and technical documentation

  • Exhibit knowledge of the airworthiness certificate, technical log, flight manual and associated operations manual and evaluate the airworthiness state of the helicopter.


 External pre-flight inspection

  • Demonstrate a sound knowledge of the helicopter type by completing the external pre-flight inspection in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual or organisation’s documentation.

Cockpit preparation

  • Demonstrate the pre-flight cockpit preparation and Flight Management System initialisation, data insertion and confirmation (if applicable) in accordance with the helicopter’s flight manual or organisation’s documentation.

Crew briefings (conduct and quality)

  • Establish an environment for open interactive communication with emphasis on the importance of questioning, offering information and critique.
  • Establish a “team concept” for the management of the flight including the operation of automated systems and the division of labour.
  • Cover pertinent safety and operational issues, identifying potential problems, provide guidelines for crew actions and include cabin crew as part of the team (if applicable).

Engine start

  • Perform the normal engine start procedure and complete the required checklists in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual or the organisation’s documentation.
  • Recognise an abnormal start and/or demonstrate the actions required in the event of an abnormal start or engine fire.
  • Hover manoeuvring/hover taxi/taxi
  • Perform brake checks (if applicable) and instrument serviceability checks, recognise hazards and park in accordance with the Aircraft Flight Manual and recommended practices.

Pre-take-off and pre-departure preparation

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the cloud base and visibility limitations for take-off.
  • Complete all appropriate pre-take-off procedures, establish that the cabin is secure, obtain clearances (as required) and provide an appropriate crew pre-take-off briefing including go/no-go criteria.

Take-off—Clear area and/or VTOL Helipad

  • Complete line up checks in accordance with the aircraft’s checklist ensuring the correct runway is being used and that the approach, runway/FATO and take-off path are clear.
  • Recognise and acknowledge the critical decision point, establish the appropriate pitch attitude for the recommended climb and trim the aircraft.
  • Fly the Category A and B profiles (as appropriate) in accordance with the flight manual.

Rejected take-off—Clear area and/or VTOL Helipad

  • Recognise an abnormal situation (actual or simulated) which necessitates a rejected take-off (prior to CDP) and carry out the appropriate emergency procedure, maintaining control of the helicopter.
  • Correctly fly the Category A rejected take-off profile in accordance with the flight manual.
  • Reduce the speed of the helicopter to at least taxi speed and to a stop within the RTOD or helipad area.
  • Make use of the QRH to follow up the recall emergency actions and nominate an appropriate plan of action.
  • Engine failure at or after CDP or Prior to LDP
  • Recognise an engine failure, correctly identify which engine has become inoperative and maintain control of the helicopter.
  • Set appropriate power on the remaining engine(s) to ensure adequate performance whilst flying an appropriate airspeed and carry out the appropriate emergency procedure using the emergency checklist or QRH to follow up the recall emergency actions and subsequently nominate an appropriate plan of action.

Engine failure after LDP – Clear area and/or VTOL Helipad

  • Recognise an engine failure, correctly identify which engine has become inoperative and maintain control of the helicopter.
  • Carry out the appropriate procedure, reducing the speed of the helicopter to at least translational speed/termination and well within the RTOD or helipad area (as appropriate).
  • Follow up the recall emergency actions and subsequently nominate an appropriate plan of action.

Helicopter handling by reference to instruments

  • Demonstrate straight and level flight and turning manoeuvres (using an angle of bank appropriate to the procedure or manoeuvre) with smooth and coordinated control applications whilst maintaining the nominated climb and descent airspeed, heading (as applicable) and balanced flight.

Use of automation (if applicable)

  • Carry out auto pilot serviceability checks, effectively utilise the autopilot and monitor its performance in flight.
  • State the limitations and capabilities of the autopilot and recognise autopilot failure in flight.
  • Execute an approach using the autopilot and transition to a manual approach at the autopilot limiting altitude and/or initiate the missed approach utilising the autopilot missed approach mode.

Transition to instrument flight and initial climb

  • Transition from visual flight to instrument flight at the published IFR take-off minima.

Navaid management and tracking

  • Tune, identify and test the aircraft’s navigational equipment in accordance with company procedures and the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Intercept and track specified tracks using the navigation aids fitted.

Instrument departure procedures

  • Depart in accordance with the promulgated SID, departure procedure or ATS instructions.

Climb procedures

  • Comply with IFR en-route climb procedures, and applicable altimeter settings.
  • Maintain required tracks, report position as applicable to ATS and maintain an in-flight navigation, fuel and radio log.

Cruise procedures

  • Comply with IFR en-route cruise procedures, maintain track, make appropriate position reports and maintain an in-flight navigation, fuel and radio log.

Unusual attitudes (upset recovery)

  • Demonstrate the ability to recover from unusual attitudes as appropriate to the helicopter size and type.

IMC autorotation profile procedure

  • Execute an appropriate emergency procedure in the event of a total power failure in IMC by establishing autorotation speed, maintaining rotor RPM within normal limits and turning the helicopter into the last known wind direction.

Descent, approach and landing preparation

  • Obtain appropriate weather and operational information relating to the descent, approach and landing.
  • Calculate an appropriate top of descent point and review endurance and fuel reserves.
  • Review and brief the appropriate arrival, approach, landing, missed approach, holding, and diversion procedure (as applicable).

Descent procedures

  • Comply with IFR en-route descent procedures, and applicable altimeter settings.
  • Maintain required tracks, report position as applicable to ATS and maintain an in-flight navigation, fuel and radio log.

Holding

  • Enter a holding pattern in accordance with the standard sector entry, within the applicable speed range, at or above the minimum holding altitude.
  • Use the lesser of a rate one turn or 25º angle of bank in the hold and adjust the outbound leg to compensate for drift as required to achieve the inbound leg (but not beyond any DME limiting distance).

Initial approach procedures

  • Anticipate and identify station passage, configure the helicopter appropriately to the approach category or class (as applicable) and establish on the DME/GPS arc or complete the procedure turn (as applicable) including timing.
  • Maintain the required track and descent profile in accordance with ATS clearances and/or approach limits.

Radar vectoring for an approach (optional)

  • Position the aircraft under radar vectoring, to a predetermined position or fix in an appropriate configuration, to intercept a specified track whilst maintaining orientation by monitoring other navigation aids.

Precision approach (optional)

  • Demonstrate an ILS approach in accordance with published procedures, tracks and descent profile.
  • Configure the helicopter to achieve an appropriate final approach speed so that a landing could be made and commence the go-around (if applicable) from not below DA/H.

Non-precision approach

  • Demonstrate a non-precision approach in accordance with published procedures, tracks and descent profile.
  • Configure the aircraft to conform with the appropriate approach category so that a landing could be made and commence the go-around (if applicable) no later than the designated missed approach point.

One engine inoperative performance

  • Maintain control of the helicopter after the failure of an engine, prior to or during an approach, and complete the approach.
  • Use checklists to follow up memory/recall items and make radio calls as appropriate.
  • Initiate a one engine inoperative missed approach from the minimum descent altitude in accordance with the published procedure.
  • Subsequently demonstrate an appreciation of the effect of an engine failure on performance by nominating an appropriate plan of action.

Normal and crosswind landing

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the cloud base and visibility limitations for a landing under the prevailing conditions.

Confined area and/or elevated helipad operations

  • Operate within a confined area and/or a certified helipad.
  • Carry out reconnaissance to evaluate power required/available, density altitude, wind direction, terrain, obstructions, size, shape and surface of the area.
  • Consider the effect of loss of headwind, wind shear and turbulence on approach.
  • Select a suitable circuit with consideration of a decision point for overshoot if necessary.
  • Establish and maintain an appropriate approach profile to arrive at the aiming point or in a stabilised hover.
  • Maintain adequate tail and main rotor clearance with an awareness of the hazards of recirculation.

Crew self-evaluation (debriefing/operational review/critique)

  • Debrief at an appropriate time, involving the entire crew (where appropriate) to give constructive, specific, objective feedback (including positive and negative aspects) based on observable behaviour.
  • Accept critique objectively and non-defensively.

Threat and error management (TEM)

  • Recognise, assess and manage potential threats in the performance of various tasks, in accordance with TEM techniques.
  • Follow SOPs with evident situational awareness to avoid or trap errors which may occur in the performance of various tasks, in accordance with TEM techniques.
  • Apply strategies which mitigate the effects of errors that occur, in accordance with TEM techniques.

Communications process and decision making (inquiry/advocacy/assertion)

  • Encourage questions regarding crew actions and decisions, answer questions openly and non-defensively, seek information from others, question the status and programming of automated systems, develop a challenge and response environment and persist appropriately until there is a clear resolution and decision.

Communications process and decision making (communications/decisions)

  • State operational decisions to other crew members, acknowledge decisions made by other crew members and share the overall situational status with all crew members and/or others (as appropriate).
  • Provide an atmosphere conducive to open and free communication and encourage crew members to state their own ideas, opinions and recommendations.
  • Verbalise and acknowledge all entries and changes to automated systems.

Team building (leadership/followership/concern for tasks)

  • Utilise all available resources and manage time available to achieve the most effective operation possible.
  • Coordinate flight deck activities to establish and maintain a proper balance between authority and assertiveness whilst acting decisively when the situation requires.
  • Recognise and deal with the demands on resources posed by automated systems when programming could reduce situational awareness or create work overload.

Team building (interpersonal relationships/group climate)

  • Demonstrate the ability to remain calm under stressful conditions and adapt to other crew members personalities and personal characteristics.
  • Ensure the appropriate group climate is established and maintained and recognise the effect of stress on fatigue and performance.
  • Recognise the symptoms of stress and fatigue in self and other crew members and during times of low communication check on crew members to maintain the team.

Workload management and situational awareness (preparation/planning/vigilance)

  • Demonstrate situational awareness by sharing the “model” of what is happening with other crew members and monitor all instruments and communications, sharing relevant information with the rest of the crew.
  • Demonstrate awareness of the effects of stress on vigilance, monitor the performance of crew members and avoid “tunnel vision” by stating or asking for the “big picture”.
  • Include all crew members in the planning process to prepare for contingency situations (approaches, weather) and verbally ensure appropriate crew are aware of the plan.
  • Provide sufficient time for the programming of automated systems and ensure all relevant crew members are aware of the status and changes to automated systems.

Workload management and situational awareness (work distribution/distraction avoidance)

  • Distribute tasks and communicate priorities to maximise efficiency. Admit and report work overloads and recognise overloads in others.
  • Prioritise secondary operational tasks and ensure that non-operational interaction does not interfere with necessary tasks.
  • Recognise the potential for distractions posed by automated systems and take appropriate preventative action.

Communications with supplementary crew members, company and passengers

  • Communicate relevant information to cabin crew, company and passengers when appropriate.

Completion of checks and use of checklists

  • Use appropriate checklists as applicable to the phase of flight.

ATS procedures and compliance

  • Obtain ATIS information when appropriate (if available) and obtain, record, read back and comply with clearances and ATS instructions when applicable.

RTF procedures

  • Listen to communications from ground and other aircraft and use the aircraft’s radio to communicate clearly and concisely using appropriate aeronautical phraseology at all times with appropriate assertiveness.
  • Tune, test and operate the aircraft’s transponder as required.

Loss of communications procedure

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the procedure to be followed in the event of a communications failure during various phases of flight.

Systems operation and procedures

  • Operate, manage and monitor helicopter systems in accordance with the flight manual and/or company procedures.

Management of a systems malfunction

  • Identify and interpret indications of a system malfunction and preform the appropriate procedure whilst maintaining control of the helicopter and its flight path.

Straight-in autorotation

  • Demonstrates an appropriate emergency procedure in the event of a total power failure into wind by establishing autorotation speed, maintaining rotor RPM within normal limits and coordinating cyclic, collective and anti-torque pedal with power to recover to a low hover or hover taxi.

180º autorotation

  • Demonstrates an appropriate emergency procedure in the event of a total power failure out of wind by establishing autorotation speed, compensating for wind and varing the flight path, RRPM and/or IAS as required.
  • Maintains rotor RPM within normal limits and coordinates cyclic, collective and anti-torque pedal with power, recovering to a low hover or hover taxi.

Vortex ring state (settling with power)

  • Demonstrates adequate knowledge of the conditions which contribute to, and may result in vortex ring state.
  • Demonstrates adequate knowledge of the relationship of gross weight, RRPM and density altitude to the severity of the vertical rate of descent.
  • Demonstrates smooth, positive helicopter control and prompt, correct recovery techniques.

Emergency equipment

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the location, purpose and use of emergency equipment.

Management of ACAS/TCAS advisories

  • Interpret and react appropriately to ACAS/TCAS advisories, preforming the appropriate Resolution Advisory (RA) actions.

Go-around from a EGPWS/HTAWS alert (if applicable)

  • Recognise, react appropriately and perform the appropriate recovery actions in response to a EGPWS/HTAWS alert.

Knowledge of flight rules

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Aviation Rules pertaining to multi-crew IFR flight in accordance with Part 119/135 air operations.

Adherence to the organisation’s standard operating procedures (SOPs)

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the organisation’s SOPs and the need to adhere to them.
  • Demonstrate adherence to the organisation’s SOPs and set crew expectations for handling deviations from SOPs.

Lookout in visual meteorology conditions (VMC)

  • Maintain a scan, both on the ground and in the air, to maintain separation from other aircraft and terrain during operations in VMC.
  • Communicate traffic and terrain information to crew.

Engine shutdown and securing the helicopter

  • Complete the shutdown procedure in accordance with the flight manual or checklist, supervise the passengers (if appropriate), secure the helicopter (as applicable) and complete all post flight documentation.