24 May 2024: The content within the human factors section is being redeveloped. Check back soon for updated content.

How people act, their attitude towards safety and how they interact with others to perform their tasks at work significantly affects their organisation’s safety performance. 

People can be the source of errors, but they are also integral to avoiding, mitigating and recovering adverse situations. Safety improvements come from understanding how people contribute to safety, considering both what goes wrong and what normally goes right.

Organisational factors can also significantly influence people’s performance, both positively and negatively. The management team are an important factor in overall safety performance and can positively contribute to safety by implementing a well-developed safety management system and fostering a proactive safety culture.

Resources on human and organisation performance


CASA video on communication(external link)

CASA video on maintenance communication(external link)

CASA resource booklet 4 on communication(external link)


CASA video on decision-making(external link)

EHEST video on decision-making(external link)

CASA video on maintenance decision-making(external link)

CASA resource booklet 7 on decision-making(external link)

FAA aeronautical decision-making(external link)

Decision-making for general aviation pilots(external link)

Decision-making for single pilot helicopter operations(external link)

Teamwork (CRM/TRM)

Advisory Circular AC121-4 Revision 0 The Training and Assessment of Human Factors and Crew Resource Management

CASA video on teamwork(external link)

CASA video on teamwork in maintenance(external link)

CASA resource booklet 5 on teamwork(external link)

Situational awareness

CAA situational awareness guidance [PDF 532 KB]

CASA video on situational awareness(external link)

CASA video on information processing(external link)

CASA resource booklet 6 on situational awareness(external link)

Threat and error management

CAA threat and error management awareness material [PDF 1.1 MB]

CASA video on enhancing pilot skills in a dynamic environment - threat and error management(external link)

CASA video for engineers/maintainers - what the experts say on error management(external link)

CASA resource booklet 8 on threat and error management(external link)

ICAO threat and error management in ATC(external link)

Skybrary maintenance error management(external link)

FAA maintenance TEM presentation(external link)

Skybrary threat and error management(external link)

ATSB Perceived threats, errors and safety in aerial work and low capacity air transport operations(external link)

EASA Principles of threat and error management for helicopter pilots, instructors, and training organisations(external link)

Workload management

Skybrary video on workload management(external link)

Skybrary pilot workload(external link)

Skybrary maintenance workload(external link)

Skybrary controller workload(external link)

 Ask us about human factors

If you have any questions about this topic, email humanfactors@caa.govt.nz