Published date: 24 January 2002

General

Civil Aviation Authority Advisory Circulars contain information about standards, practices, and procedures that the Director has found to be an Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) with the associated rule.

An AMC is not intended to be the only means of compliance with a rule, and consideration will be given to other methods of compliance that may be presented to the Director. When new standards, practices, or procedures are found to be acceptable they may be added to the appropriate Advisory Circular.

This Advisory Circular also includes guidance material (GM) to facilitate compliance with the rule requirements. Guidance material must not be regarded as an acceptable means of compliance. 

Explanations have been provided for some rules only where considered necessary.

Purpose

The Advisory Circular provides material intended to assist organisations and individuals to understand the requirements for completing an application for entering an aircraft on the New Zealand Register of Aircraft; issuing and cancelling a certificate of registration; allocation, reservation, changing, displaying, and application of registration marks; and application for, and registration of, an identifiable paint scheme and markings.

In accordance with section 72B(2)(f) of the Civil Aviation Act 1990 the Authority must maintain the New Zealand Register of Aircraft.  Part 47 establishes the requirements that enable the Authority to keep an up-to-date record of the person(s) who have possession of a New Zealand registered aircraft and issue a certificate of registration to that person. This allows the Authority to identify the person(s) responsible for the aircraft and its compliance with the appropriate rules, and provides details so the person(s) can be kept informed of airworthiness information regarding the aircraft.  The New Zealand Register of Aircraft is not intended to provide a record of who owns or has a proprietary interest in a particular aircraft.

Related Rules

This Advisory Circular relates specifically to Civil Aviation Rule Part 47, Aircraft Registration and Marking.  Unless otherwise stated each reference to a number in this AC relates to a specific rule within Part 47.  References to the Act mean the Civil Aviation Act 1990. 

Correspondence and forms

Correspondence relating to aircraft registration and marking should be sent the Director at the following postal address and are to be marked Attention: Aircraft Registrar.  All forms referred to in this Advisory Circular can be obtained from either the Aircraft Registrar or from the CAA website.

Civil Aviation Authority

PO Box 31441

Lower Hutt 6315

Ph        (04) 560 9575

Fax      (04) 560 9452

or the CAA website, http:\\www.caa.govt.nz

Fees, Charges and Levies

The Civil Aviation Charges regulations (No 2) 1991 prescribe the applicable fees including those associated with the registration of aircraft and the participation levy for operation of an aircraft within the New Zealand aviation system.  Information on the current fees, charges, or levies referred to in Part 47 and this AC can be obtained by contacting the Aircraft Registrar, and are detailed on the CAA website under “Rules and More”.

Change Notice

The data in this Advisory Circular 47-1, Revision 2, supersedes information in AC47-1A.  Advisory Circular AC47-1A Aircraft Registration and Marking is hereby cancelled.


Subpart B — Aircraft Registration and Certificate of Registration

47.51    Requirement for aircraft registration and certification

Aircraft operating in New Zealand are required to be registered either on the New Zealand Register of Aircraft or by the appropriate aeronautical authority of a foreign state.  The certificate of registration must be valid, and must be held by the person lawfully entitled to possession of the aircraft for 28 days or longer.

The following are exceptions and therefore are not required to be registered under Part 47:

· a new production aircraft being operated by a Part 148 aircraft manufacturing organisation for the purpose of flight testing when a special flight permit has been issued under Part 21.

· aircraft or equipment operated in accordance with —

o Part 101 - gyrogliders, parasails, unmanned balloons, kites, rockets, pilotless and model aircraft

o Part 104 – parachutes

o Part 106 – hang gliders

An application may be submitted in advance of an aircraft being removed from a foreign register, but the application will not be processed, and the aircraft will not be entered on the New Zealand Register of Aircraft, until notification of de-registration by the foreign state of registry is received by the CAA.  An aircraft registered in any other country cannot be registered in New Zealand.

47.53    Application for registration and grant of certificate

47.53(a)

The application to register an aircraft in New Zealand, and for subsequent issue of a certificate of registration, can be made by the person lawfully entitled to possession of the aircraft for 28 days or longer or by a person whom they have authorised to act on their behalf. 

A person who will be entitled to take possession of an aircraft on a specified and verifiable date may also apply for registration of an aircraft and issue of a certificate of registration.  The applicant may be required to include a statutory declaration in this instance.  [Refer 47.53(c)(3)]

Applicants need to complete form CAA 24047/01 and submit it with payment of the appropriate fee.  The aircraft and applicant’s information supplied on this form will appear on the certificate of registration.

This person entitled to possession of a particular aircraft for 28 days or longer is the person who is primarily responsible for the operation and oversight of compliance with the airworthiness requirements for that aircraft.  Arrangements made for lease or operation of the aircraft for shorter periods of less than 28 days do not require any change to the New Zealand Register of Aircraft, or to the certificate of registration.

47.53(b)(1)

The information required for the application should be obtained from the aircraft data plate. The date of manufacture should include the month and year of manufacture. The method of determining the date of manufacture varies between aircraft manufacturers.  If the date is not clearly stated on the data plate or in the aircraft documentation, the date on the statement of conformity should be used.

47.53(b)(2)

The application must identify the person(s), organisation, partnership, or syndicate that is lawfully entitled to possession of the aircraft for 28 days or longer. The address of the applicant must include—

· the postal address to which correspondence is to be forwarded

· the street address in New Zealand at which the documents may be served upon the certificate holder

If these addresses are different, for example if the postal address is a Post Office Box, then both addresses must be provided.

If the group entitled to lawful possession is a syndicate or partnership, the full names of all members are required. These may be provided on a separate page. All holders of an aviation document are required to be fit and proper persons and therefore all members of the partnership or syndicate will be assessed in accordance with section 10 of the Civil Aviation Act 1990. The applicant(s) may be required to update information in the fit and proper person questionnaire, form CAA 24047/02.

47.53(c)(3)

If an applicant for initial registration of an aircraft wishes to apply for registration prior to taking lawful possession of the aircraft, a statutory declaration will be required stating the date when lawful possession is to be taken. This provision can be used to allow an applicant to apply for registration of an aircraft prior to importing the aircraft to New Zealand. However, the aircraft cannot be entered on the New Zealand Register of Aircraft until notification of de-registration is received from the foreign state of registry. The certificate of registration cannot be issued until the date of lawful possession of the aircraft.

47.55    Registration and grant of certificate

47.55(a)

An applicant is entitled to have an aircraft registered and a certificate of registration issued provided the Director is satisfied that the aircraft is not registered in any other country; that the information supplied is acceptable and the applicant meets all the requirements in 47.53(b) and (c); that the applicant is a fit and proper person; and that the granting of the certificate is not contrary to the interests of aviation safety.

47.55(b)

This rule details the actions of the Director once he is satisfied that the aircraft can be registered and a certificate of registration can be issued.  New registration marks are allocated in alphabetical order, however a particular mark may be reserved on application. To reserve a particular mark, the requested mark should be identified on the application form. If available, the mark may be reserved for a two-year period.  (Refer 47.107) Details relating to an aircraft, its registration mark, and if applicable its identifiable paint scheme and markings, are recorded in the New Zealand Register of Aircraft and are available on the CAA website.

47.57    Change of possession of aircraft

47.57(a)

Where there is a change in the lawful possession of an aircraft for a period of 28 days or longer, the person relinquishing their lawful entitlement to possession is responsible for notifying the CAA of this change and for payment of the associated fees.  The certificate of registration held by the person relinquishing possession, expires on the date possession ceases.

47.57(b)(1)

Notifying the Director of a change of possession is done by completing one of the following forms and submitting it with the appropriate fee.

· form CAA 24047/03; or

· form CAA 24047/03A, which can be found printed on the reverse of the certificate of registration.

When using form CAA 24047/03, the person relinquishing their lawful entitlement to possession of the aircraft needs to identify on the form the person who will be taking lawful possession of the aircraft. The person relinquishing lawful possession of the aircraft should ensure that both parties complete the relevant sections of this form.  This form must be submitted within 14 days of the date that the person relinquishing their lawful entitlement to possession ceases possession of the aircraft.

There may be occasions where it is not possible, due to geographical location or transaction time constraints, to have both parties complete the same CAA 24047/03 form.  In these circumstances the Director will accept separate forms from each of the parties involved provided that the each form is signed by the relevant party, and the information provided clearly identifies the other party’s name and physical address, and where possible a day-time contact phone number.

The person relinquishing possession should complete either form CAA 24047/03 or CAA 24047/03A (on the reverse of the certificate of registration), and the person taking possession of the aircraft should complete the relevant section of form CAA 24047/03.  On receipt of the two signed and completed forms, the application for change of possession of the aircraft can be processed.

If the person in whose name the certificate of registration is currently issued is unable to complete the relevant section of form CAA 24047/03 in order to relinquish possession of the aircraft, e.g. they are deceased, then the person taking lawful possession of the aircraft needs to complete form CAA 24047/03A which contains a statutory declaration to the effect they are the person, organisation, partnership, or syndicate lawfully entitled to possession of the particular aircraft for 28 day or longer.

47.57(b)(1)

A change in possession may be the result of destruction, loss, theft, withdrawal from use, or transfer to a foreign register.  In such cases the Director must be notified as soon as possible in accordance with 47.67.

In the event of an accident, your insurance company may assess the damage to the aircraft as being beyond economical repair.  In this case it is usual for them to pay out the insured person(s) and the damaged aircraft then becomes the property of the insurance company and the holder of the certificate of registration is no longer entitled to possession of the aircraft.  The Director must be notified within 14 days of the insurance company informing you of this outcome, as this constitutes a change of possession.  The form on the back of the certificate of registration should be completed, identifying the insurance company taking possession, and immediately forwarded to the Director.

As the insurance company will be taking possession of the aircraft, they will need to notify the Director, especially if they intend to keep the damaged aircraft on the New Zealand Register of Aircraft.  If the aircraft registration is to be cancelled because the aircraft is classified as destroyed or being permanently withdrawn from use, then the insurance company will need to notify the Director so that the aircraft can be de-registered.

If you fail to notify the Director that you are no longer lawfully entitled to possession of an aircraft you will continue to receive all CAA correspondence including invoices, and possibly landing fees and Airways charges, as you will be the last person listed as being responsible for that aircraft.

If the Director has been notified by the holder of a certificate of registration that they are no longer in possession of an aircraft, and the Director does not receive notification from any person(s) taking possession of an aircraft, the Director may begin action to de-register that aircraft.

 Carriage of the certificate of registration

You do not need to carry the certificate of registration in the aircraft when operating within New Zealand, however it is one of the documents listed in Civil Aviation Rule 91.111 that has to be carried by all New Zealand registered aircraft operating outside of New Zealand.

47.59    Operation of aircraft after expiry of certificate

The certificate of registration held by the person relinquishing lawful possession expires on the date that they cease to have lawful entitlement to possession of the aircraft.  The certificate of registration is then no longer valid.

A person taking possession of an aircraft being flown to, from, or within New Zealand has a 28-day period in which to obtain a valid certificate of registration.  The aircraft may be operated within this 28-day period without a valid certificate of registration.  After the 28 days have elapsed the aircraft cannot be flown until a new certificate of registration is issued.

This provision allows for the processing of applications for registration as well as the change of possession of an aircraft.  It allows a period of 14 days for the person(s) relinquishing or taking possession to submit the necessary documentation, and a further period of 14 days for the change of possession to be processed without the aircraft being grounded.

47.61    Currency of information in certificate

The holder of a certificate of registration needs to notify the Director of any changes that affect the currency of any information contained in the certificate.  Changes of address, aircraft description, and typographical errors should all be notified in writing as soon as possible. The New Zealand Register of Aircraft will be updated and a new certificate of registration will be issued free of charge. The applicant’s address will need to include—

· the postal address to which correspondence is to be forwarded

· the street address in New Zealand at which the documents may be served upon the certificate holder

If these addresses are different, for example if the postal address is a Post Office Box, then both addresses are required.

Where there is a change in the membership of a syndicate this constitutes a change in the currency of the information contained in the certificate, and the full names and other details of the new members must be forwarded to the Director.

47.65    Duration of certificate

The New Zealand certificate of registration remains valid until either the certificate holder ceases to be lawfully entitled to possession of the aircraft for 28 days or longer, or it is suspended or revoked by the Director under sections 17 to 20 of the Act.

If for some reason the certificate is suspended, the holder of the certificate is required to produce the certificate for endorsement.  The certificate should be sent immediately to the Director marked Attention: Aircraft Registrar.

If the certificate of registration is revoked, the aircraft is considered de-registered and the registration is cancelled in accordance with 47.67.  The holder of the certificate is required to surrender the certificate immediately and should send it to the Director marked Attention: Aircraft Registrar.

47.67    Destruction, loss, theft, withdrawal from use, or foreign registration of aircraft

If the aircraft is being permanently withdrawn from use, or has been destroyed, lost, or stolen, the holder of a certificate of registration has 14 days from the time that they become aware of this, to notify the Director.  If an aircraft is being exported and an application is going to be made for the aircraft to be registered in another country, the Director is to be notified immediately of any such application.

In either instance the notification must be made in writing, signed by the certificate holder, accompanied by the certificate of registration, and should outline the particular events concerning the aircraft.   On receipt of this information the Director will revoke the certificate of registration and cancel the registration, de-registering the aircraft in accordance with 47.69.

It is the responsibility of the holder of the certificate of registration to notify the Director, whether or not they are retaining possession of the aircraft and re-registering the aircraft in a foreign country themselves, or whether possession is being transferred to another person in a foreign country.  In the latter case, you may not know whether the person taking possession of the aircraft will be registering it overseas, however you still need to notify the Director of the change of possession in accordance with 47.57.

The holder of a certificate of registration is not required by Part 47 to notify the Director when a New Zealand registered aircraft is being operated overseas. However, the Director should be notified of the overseas maintenance personnel or organisations to which responsibility has been delegated for that aircraft.  The certificate holder is still required to ensure compliance with all other applicable foreign and New Zealand Civil Aviation Rule requirements for the operation and maintenance of the aircraft.

47.69    Cancellation of registration

The registration of an aircraft can be cancelled for a variety of reasons and these are outlined in this rule.  De-registration of an aircraft and subsequent cancellation of the aircraft’s registration can be initiated by either the holder of the certificate of registration, or by the Director under certain circumstances.  The New Zealand Register of Aircraft is required to be kept up to date and reflect any such changes.

The holder of the certificate of registration may initiate cancellation of the registration if the aircraft is destroyed, lost, stolen, exported, or when they are withdrawing the aircraft permanently from use, and they request that the Director revoke the certificate of registration.

The Director may revoke the certificate of registration and cancel the registration of the aircraft at the request of the holder of the certificate of registration and when satisfied that the aircraft has been destroyed, lost, stolen, permanently withdrawn from use, or if the aircraft is found to be registered in another country.  The Director may revoke the certificate of registration, being an aviation document, for other reasons by exercising powers in sections 18 to 20 of the Act.

The holder of a certificate of registration is responsible for notifying the Director of any change of possession of the aircraft.  The certificate of registration expires, and is no longer, valid from the date on which the holder has ceased to be lawfully entitled to possession of the aircraft.  If the Director has not received an application for registration and grant of a new certificate of registration within 14 days of the certificate expiring, the certificate of registration may be revoked and registration of that aircraft may be cancelled.  Both parties are required to complete the relevant forms promptly.

Subpart C — Aircraft Marking

47.101  Requirement for aircraft marking

The New Zealand nationality mark is ZK.  The allocated registration mark consists of a set of three letters specific to that aircraft.

All aircraft operated outside New Zealand are required to display both the nationality and the allocated registration mark.  All aircraft with a MCTOW greater than 5700 kg are required to display both the nationality and allocated registration mark even if they are operated solely within New Zealand.

Smaller aircraft typically have less surface area on which to display full marks, therefore when operated within New Zealand some aircraft are not required to display the nationality mark.  These aircraft types are identified in 47.101(b).  Unless otherwise stated, these aircraft are still required to display the allocated three-letter registration mark.

Aircraft are sometimes used for special police operations where it is desirable for the aircraft operator not to be identified.  For this reason, when an aircraft is operating within New Zealand on a police operation authorised by the Commissioner of Police, the allocated nationality and registration mark need not be displayed provided that the aircraft displays a Police Mark allocated under 47.102.  Aircraft being operated under the authorisation of the Commissioner of Police are allocated a specific de-identified mark that is known to the Police.

New Zealand has a large number of airworthy historical aircraft.  It is now possible for the holder of the certificate of registration to apply for an approval to display the aircraft’s historical and identifiable paint scheme and markings under 47.104, as an alternative to displaying the aircraft’s allocated registration mark.

It is an offence to obscure or alter an aircraft’s allocated registration mark, unless authorised to do so either by—

· the Director, to allow the display of an approved identifiable paint scheme and markings, or

· the Commissioner of Police for an authorised Police operation.

47.103 Nationality and registration marks

All aircraft entered on the New Zealand Register of aircraft have the nationality mark of ZK .  The Director is required to allocated a three-letter registration mark to all New Zealand registered aircraft.  ALL New Zealand registered aircraft will be allocated a registration mark whether or not they intend to seek an approval not to display that mark under 47.102 (Police mark) or 47.104 (Identifiable paint scheme and markings).

Allocation of registration marks

Marks are generally allocated in alphabetical sequence with the following general criteria:

· ZK-A**, ZK-B**, ZK-GA* and ZK-HA* series marks, since 1987 these have been reserved for historical aircraft including helicopters and gliders.  This is to enable the original aircraft to regain its original mark upon restoration.

· ZK-FA* and ZK-FB* series marks are reserved for balloons.

· ZK-G** series marks are reserved for gliders.

· ZK-H** and ZK-I** are reserved for helicopters.

· ZK-RA*, ZK-RB*, ZK-RC*, ZK-RD* and ZK-RE are reserved for gyrocopters.

Registration marks for historical aircraft

Applicants requesting the allocation of a previously allocated historical registration mark should apply to the Director in writing.  The applicant should provide sufficient information to clearly establish authenticity for the restored aircraft to display the particular historical mark requested.  Supporting evidence should include, but is not limited to:

· the aircraft data plate

· aircraft structural components

· aircraft logbooks

· pilot logbooks

· photographs, media, or historical reports

Where a registration mark from the historical series has not been previously allocated, it may be allocated to an aircraft relevant to the era when that group of marks was first used.  “Relevant” means an aircraft design first flown before or during the year in which allocation to that group of registrations ceased.  The following is a list of when certain registration groups were allocated:

· ZK-A** up to and including 1952

· ZK-B** up to and including 1961

· ZK-GA* up to and including 1956

· ZK-HA* up to and including 1965

The New Zealand Register of Aircraft has reserved marks beginning with H for helicopters, G for gliders, and F for balloons.  When operated within New Zealand these aircraft types, which have such a letter as the first letter of their allocated registration mark, need not display that letter.  Rule 47.101(c) permits the display of the last two letters of the allocated mark in such cases.

The number of aircraft in these type categories has now exceeded the available combinations in most cases, and some holders of a certificate of registration have requested special marks.  If the allocated registration mark has a first letter other than H, G or F as is appropriate, then the full three-letter mark must be displayed.

47.103 Approval of identifiable paint scheme and markings

It is now possible for the holder of a certificate of registration for the following aircraft types to apply for an approval to display an identifiable paint scheme and markings as an alternative to displaying the allocated registration mark:

· an aircraft with a special category experimental airworthiness certificate issued under part 21, subpart H

· a microlight aircraft or an aircraft issued with a standard or restricted category airworthiness certificate under part 21, subpart H wishing to display an alternative identifiable paint scheme and markings for historical reasons

To apply for an approval to display an alternative scheme and markings the holder of the certificate of registration must complete form CAA 27047/04 and include all the information required in 47.104(c) and forward this to the Director marked Attention: Aircraft Registrar along, with the applicable fee.

As the proposed paint scheme and markings will be displayed as an alternative to the aircraft’s allocated registration mark, detailed information is required to assess whether the aircraft will remain identifiable, and that no two schemes are duplicated or are so close as to become indistinguishable.  A written description of the proposed scheme and markings is required as well as a pictorial description.  For some ex-military aircraft it is possible to obtain information and drawings of the finished aircraft specification, complete with paint-shade code numbers.  It is also possible to electronically generate sketches of the aircraft and accurately depict the proposed paint scheme and markings. An artist’s impression may also be suitable.  The information submitted should include:

· the main or predominant colour, with secondary colours also listed for completeness

· predominant markings – these may include RNZAF roundel, USSR red star, USAF emblem, RAF roundel etc

· if the aircraft paint scheme is associated with a particular military marking the applicant should include details such as which defence force (e.g. Army, Navy, Airforce, Marine) and which type of scheme (e.g. camouflage).

An approval may be given if the proposed paint scheme and markings are sufficiently clear as to distinguish the aircraft from other aircraft of the same or similar type or model.  A paint scheme and markings will NOT be approved where—

· the marking forms part of the paint scheme; or

· replicates any current ICAO nationality mark; or

· the military markings are currently operated by any military force.

The approval to display an identifiable paint scheme and markings only applies to New Zealand registered aircraft operated within New Zealand and does not extend to operations in foreign countries.  Approval to operate the aircraft in a foreign country without displaying the nationality and registration marks must be obtained from the appropriate aviation regulatory authority. 

The holder of a certificate of registration for an aircraft that has been approved to display an identifiable paint scheme and markings is required under 47.103(f) to submit a set of three colour photographs which clearly depict the completed aircraft paint scheme and markings from three different views i.e. top, underneath, side.  If for some reason the paint scheme and markings are different on each side of the aircraft then a view of both sides must be submitted.  The photographs should be taken at an angle of 90º to the aircraft surface in each instance.

47.105 Registration of identifiable paint scheme and markings

Details, including the photographs, of an approved paint scheme and markings will be entered on the New Zealand Register of Aircraft.  Information relating to each aircraft entered on the Register such as the aircraft type, allocated registration mark and, where applicable, the identifiable paint scheme and markings are available on the CAA website.

Some holders of a certificate of registration currently hold an exemption from the requirement to display the allocated registration mark.  The re-issue of Part 47 provides a method for seeking approval to display identifiable paint scheme and markings and supersedes the need for these exemptions. However, in accordance with the transition provisions in Appendix A of the re-issued Part 47, a three-view set of photographs of the aircraft needs to be submitted to the Director within 120 days of the rule coming into effect.  Therefore photographs of all aircraft displaying an identifiable paint scheme and markings must be submitted to the Director by 24 May 2002.

Once approved under 47.104, the paint scheme and markings of a particular aircraft cannot be changed without further approval from the Director.  It is an offence to obscure or alter the approved paint scheme and markings displayed as an alternative to the allocated registration mark.   Such changes are required to be approved by the Director and entered in the New Zealand Register of Aircraft.  To apply for a new approved paint scheme and markings the applicant needs to complete form CAA 27047/04 and submit it with the appropriate fee.

Should the holder of certificate of registration decide that they no longer wish to display the approved identifiable paint scheme and markings they must inform the Director in writing.  The aircraft must revert to displaying the allocated registration mark and/or nationality mark in accordance with 47.101.  The New Zealand Register of Aircraft will be amended accordingly.

47.107 Reservation of registration mark

A person may apply for a particular mark to be reserved, however as described above, some marks have been reserved for historical reasons or for particular aircraft categories.  A mark can be reserved for up to 2 years and cannot be allocated during this time unless requested by the person who has reserved that mark.

47.108 Change of registration mark

It is possible to replace an aircraft’s allocated registration mark.  The request needs to be in writing stating the registration mark being sought, and enclosing the airworthiness certificate and the certificate of registration, as these documents will need to be reissued with the aircraft’s new registration mark.  This information must be submitted with the appropriate fee.

Reallocation of marks

To minimise the chance of confusion, a period of 12 months will elapse between the cancellation of a mark and its subsequent reallocation.  Marks may be reallocated on verification that all relevant documentation has been identified, distinguished, and either archived or associated with a new registration mark.

A mark will only be reallocated when the Director is satisfied that that there can be no confusion between documentation relating to the aircraft that previously held the registration mark and the aircraft to which the mark has subsequently been allocated.

47.109 Display of marks

The aircraft’s allocated registration mark must be permanently affixed and located so that it is displayed in a position where equipment or other moving parts of the aircraft won’t obscure it.  The marks must be kept clean and visible and contrast with the background to which it is affixed.  Aircraft being operated on authorised Police operations need to similarly affix the allocated Police mark by some means so that the marks meet these requirements for the duration of the operation.

47.111 Location of marks – lighter-than-air aircraft

Airships and balloons tend to have large surfaces to which marks can be affixed, however they are generally curved and can either distort the marks or make them difficult to read from some angles.  This rule standardises the location for the marks and will enable them to be displayed to the best advantage.

The location of all aircraft marks and their specifications follow the ICAO requirements in Annex 7 as closely as possible.

47.113 Location of marks – heavier-than-air aircraft

The marking of aircraft is required to be standardised and provide uniformity where possible.  It is difficult to stipulate the exact location for marks to be displayed due to the various sizes, shapes, and available surface area of different makes and models of aircraft.  This rule provides requirements for fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters.

If an aeroplane, glider, powered glider, or rotorcraft does not have the parts described on which the marks can be affixed, or those parts are too small to accommodate the size of marks required, the Director may approve a more suitable location for display of the marks.  The marks must still be readily visible and cannot be obscured by equipment or moving parts during the aircraft’s normal use.

47.115 Specification of marks

The marks are required to be solid, capital, Roman letters without ornamentation and of specific dimensions.  Helvetica Medium and Helvetica Medium Italic are also acceptable.

To ensure that each letter of the registration mark is clearly visible, each letter needs to be separated by a space that is not less than one-quarter the height of the individual letters.  The hyphen is considered a letter in this instance.

In some circumstances due to the size of the surface area available, and in order to keep the marks full size and horizontal, it may be more practical to display the marks on two horizontal lines.  The requirements now stipulate that the minimum separation between letters cannot be less than one-quarter the height of the individual letters.   The characters may be in italics and displayed as follows (example not to scale):

ZK ­– ABC ZK ­– ABC

ZK ­–                                ZK ­–

ABC                                ABC

When an italic font is used—

· the height should be the vertical height of the character

· the width should be the widest portion of the character

· the slant of the character should not exceed 30º.

47.117 Measurement of marks

The marking of aircraft is required to be standardised and provide uniformity.  The size of the registration mark should be as large as practicable.  The letters need to be uniform in height and must be 250mm or greater in height irrespective of where they are located on the aircraft.

Provision has been made for smaller sized marks to be approved if an aircraft does not have a surface large enough to accommodate full size marks.  Requests to display a reduced size mark must be made in writing and submitted to the Director.  The request should include details of the aircraft type, proposed markings, an explanation as to why the reduced sized marks are required, and a side view photograph of the aircraft.

The minimum size mark that can be approved in such instances is 150mm in height, however the marks must be as large as practical.  Requests to display marks with a height of less than 250mm for purely cosmetic reasons will NOT be approved.

On 9 th January 1998 the Director granted a general exemption, 98/EXE/69, which provided some relief for holders of a certificate of registration whose aircraft did not meet the size and location requirements of 47.111 to 47.117 inclusive of Part 47, amendment 1, effective 25 December 1997.  The exemption was granted to provide time for compliance with the requirements for marking aircraft without added expense.  Therefore, if the non-compliant aircraft was painted, re-painted, or re-marked after 9 th January 1998 that aircraft had to be marked so as to display marks in accordance with Part 47.  This transition provision has been carried through in the reissue of Part 47.

Holders of a certificate of registration for affected aircraft must carefully check to ensure that any proposed painting, re-painting, or re-marking of the aircraft will meet the size and location requirements of Part 47, effective 24 January 2002.