Published date: 27 January 2021


Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) advisory circulars (ACs) contain information about standards, practices, and procedures that the Director has found to be an acceptable means of compliance with the associated rule.

An acceptable means of compliance is not intended to be the only means of compliance with a rule, and consideration will be given to other methods of compliance that may be presented to the Director.   When new standards, practices, or procedures are found to be acceptable they will be added to the appropriate AC.

An AC also includes guidance material to facilitate compliance with the rule requirements. Guidance material must not be regarded as an acceptable means of compliance.


The AC provides acceptable means of compliance for issue of aircraft maintenance licences, certificates and ratings and the privileges and limitations of those licences, certificates and ratings.

Related Rules

This AC relates specifically to Civil Aviation Rule Part 66.

Change Notice

Revision 3 provides information on changes to Part 66 relating to a suite of matters including the issue of licences, certificates and ratings, competence, complexity, the recent experience requirements, medical requirements, drug and alcohol requirements, examinations, effect of convictions and other conduct on the fit and proper person test, recurrency training, training for aircraft maintenance, engineer ratings, supervision requirements, and changes to Appendices B and C.

In addition to the Appendices B and C, additional Appendices, 1-6, have been included in this version of the AC.

Glossary of Terms

The terms listed below are as used in this AC and the context of their use is explained.

Aircraft Maintenance – CAR Part 1 definition: in relation to an aircraft or aircraft component, means all work and inspections performed to ensure the continued airworthiness of the aircraft or aircraft component, and all modifications.

AMEL – Aircraft Maintenance Engineer Licence.

ASPEQ – (formerly ASL) a New Zealand company providing examination services internationally delegated and contracted to provide assessment services for the CAA.

Competence (Competent) – having the necessary ability, knowledge, skill and qualification to carry out required maintenance tasks.

Complex – a group or system of different parts or components that are interconnected or linked in a close or complicated way. The effects of such complexity include:

  • It being harder to predict system properties from the properties of components because the emergent system behaviour may be unstable and non-replicable,
  • It being harder to identify and diagnose problems,
  • Increased confusion and the likelihood of error, or
  • It being harder to assure with confidence the system’s serviceability.


Complex avionic system – A software reliant integrated system where a possible failure condition could propagate from one component to another which may influence the correct functioning of other components within the system. The effects are as above for complex systems.

Currency – is a means of providing tangible evidence for competence.

Familiarity – reasonable knowledge and experience of an aircraft, system, component etc.

LRU – an Avionic (Line Replaceable Unit) is an aircraft avionic part that satisfies all the following requirements:

  1. it must have no mechanical input from, or output to, another part or mechanism;
  2. it must contain only electrical, electronic, instrument or radio parts, or software, or a combination of any such part or parts and software, designed to provide control, monitor or display functions, or a combination of such functions;
  3. it must not require any of the following in order to be installed, secured or connected to the aircraft:
    • specialist knowledge or techniques,
    • specialised equipment, or
    • rigging, or functional testing or adjustment, using specialised equipment external to the aircraft or brought on board the aircraft, to ensure that it is functioning properly.

Note: The process of updating/transferring software data, using data loaders (whether portable or onboard), is treated as an avionic LRU replacement, as long as LRU replacement serviceability can be established by using a simple test. Software transfer is not to be treated as an LRU replacement if the software installation does not have a discrete test outcome/result or if affected systems serviceability cannot be verified.

Medical Condition – refer to the explanatory notes below at rule 66.19.


Radio System – any system which transmits or receives, is not a hand-held communication unit and would be required to be included on the form CAA 2129 (see AC43-10). Such systems would include:

  • Communication equipment
  • Navigation equipment
  • Radar equipment
  • Identification transmitting and receiving equipment
  • Removable and fixed emergency locator transmitters
  • Intercom systems
  • Cellular telephones (fixed).

Recurrent or Acceptable Training – for the purpose of upskilling with technological advancement and for maintaining current skills. Such training may be conducted by an Aircraft and equipment manufacturer, a Part 141, 145, or 147 Certified Training Organisation as a Familiarisation course, Differences course or something similar. The purpose is to refresh basic knowledge for the rating to be able to carry out the privileges safely and competently.

Special Test Equipment – refer to notes below at rule 66.55(c).


Part 66, Aircraft Maintenance Personnel Licensing, prescribes the rules relating to the issue of licences, ratings, certificates, and authorisations issued by the Director.

This AC provides information about some of the rules in Part 66 and describes the policies of the CAA in administering those rules. Because some of the rules are obvious in their application, not all rules are detailed in this circular.

This AC also specifies the examinations required for the issue of documents under Part 66.


Readers should refer to Part 66 for references to the rule. Rule numbers have been used here to identify paragraphs that relate to those rules.

66.1       Applicability

Part 66 prescribes the specific requirements for the issue of aircraft maintenance engineer licences, ratings, certificates of maintenance approval (MA), and inspection authorisations. It also describes the privileges and limitations of these documents. It is important that this AC is read in conjunction with this rule.

66.7       Application for licences, certificates, and ratings

Applications for licences, ratings, certificates, and authorisations should be completed on the applicable application form and forwarded to:


Licensing and Standards
Civil Aviation Authority
PO Box 3555
Wellington 6140

New Zealand

Or by email to -  



The following application forms are available from the CAA website, under the heading – Licensing & Certification/Forms. From this page, filter by rule to Part 66.

Alternatively, from the CAA home page select Forms from the Quick links and filter by rule to Part 66.

Aircraft maintenance engineer licence and/or category                                CAA 24066-01

Aircraft maintenance engineer licence - Rating                                             CAA 24066-02

Aircraft maintenance engineer – Maintenance approval                               CAA 24066-03

Recognition of foreign AME licence                                                                CAA 24066-04

Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Act – Licence registration – AME           CAA 24066-08

Application for inspection authorisation certificate – Initial issue or renewal

                                                                                                                                   CAA 24066-10

Application for licence verification                                                                 CAA602

The appropriate fees, as prescribed by the current Civil Aviation Charges Regulations (and specified on the applicable application form) should be enclosed with the completed application form.

Where practical experience details are required, they should be documented in a suitable Practical Training Record (PTR) and be as complete and detailed as possible to allow prompt assessment of the application.

CAA does not offer a pre-assessment service. All applications for pre-assessment should be sent to ASPEQ for a fixed fee assessment.

Application fees for non-approved assessments by either CAA or ASPEQ will not be re-credited to the applicant.

66.9       Issue of licences, certificates and ratings

The appendices to this circular contain information on the following:

  • Appendix 1 description of AMEL category groups and ratings
  • Appendix 2description of the Category demarcations

Note: For information regarding the lists for various type ratings, refer to the CAA website, Licensing & Certification/ Type ratings for AMEL holders.

This rule requires the applicant to satisfy the Director that the following requirements are met—

66.9(a)(1) - Fit and proper person test

Holders of an aviation document must pass a fit and proper person test. Initial applicants for licences or certificates issued under this part will be required to complete a Fit and Proper Person Questionnaire - CAA 24FPP, that meets the requirements of this test.

The criteria for the fit and proper person test are in section 10 of the Civil Aviation Act 1990 (the Act). Section 10(2) of the Act allows the Director to also consider additional matters such as factors specified in the Rules. Section 11 of the Act defines the rights of individuals and requires a set procedure in case of adverse determinations.

Criminal Offences and Charges including those involving alcohol or drugs

These requirements have been modernised and a wider view taken of matters relevant to the Director in determining whether a document holder or applicant is a fit and proper person in accordance with section 10 of the Act.


Relevant factors for the Director to consider are whether the document holder or applicant has any criminal convictions, including those under the Clean Slate Act 2004, whether he or she has any criminal charges against them or any criminal charges pending, in addition to convictions for offences relating to alcohol or drugs. There is a duty on the document holder or applicant to report to the Director any conviction or charge of this type as soon as practicable after the person becomes aware of them. The provisions of sections 10, 11, 17 and 18 of the Act may apply and ultimately such a conviction or charge may result in a refusal to grant a licence or suspension or revocation of a licence.


For more FPP information please go to the CAA webpage Fit and Proper Person Process.


66.9(a)(2) - English language test

The applicant's English Language ability will be determined through the written and oral examinations carried out to qualify for the licence or certificate. Normally this is via the Air Law subjects 020 and 021. The determination may occur during initial licence issue, foreign licence recognition process, with recurrency after 5 years of licence inactivity or as directed by the Director.

An applicant for whom English is not their first language, and who is unable to pass Air Law oral subject 021 will need to sit and pass a Level 4 English proficiency test conducted through ASPEQ, prior to resitting Subject 021.

66.9(a)(3) - Eligibility requirements

This refers to the requirements in rules 66.53, 66.103, 66.153, and 66.203; and relates to examinations and practical experience.

The acceptable method of demonstrating completion of suitable practical experience is to submit a Practical Training Record (PTR). This should be set out so the experience is readily identifiable to that applicable licence/category/rating that is being applied for.

66.9(a)(4) - Interest of aviation safety

The granting of a licence or certificate must not be contrary to the interests of aviation safety. To satisfy this requirement, the personal records of each applicant for a licence, or certificate, will be reviewed. The Director can only review records that are in the possession of CAA.

For the granting of a group or rating normally both experience and examinations are required or a training course with the appropriate combination acceptable to the director.

66.9(a)(5) – Medically fit to exercise privileges

To comply with the requirements to be medically fit to exercise the privileges of an aircraft maintenance engineer licence, the applicant, as part of the Fit and Proper Person process, may be asked to supply a signed declaration that they do not have a medical condition, as detailed under rule 66.19, that will create a risk of harm to themselves or to other persons while exercising their LAME privileges.

66.9(b) - Foreign AMEL recognition

Applicants for the grant of licences, ratings, or certificates, issued on the basis of a current licence or certificate issued by a foreign ICAO Contracting State accepted by CAA, should complete application form CAA 24066/04, referring to this form and the CAA web site for the application requirements.

The application will be assessed:

  • to ensure that the licence or certificate has been issued by an ICAO Contracting State, where CAA understands that state’s licensing system and that state’s system meets the requirements of Annex 1 to the ICAO Convention, and
  • to ensure that the document is valid and current, as part of this process the issuing State is to verify this to CAA, and
  • to determine the extent of, any limitations, and rating coverage, and
  • to determine which AMEL examinations are required to be passed. As a minimum this will include Human Factors (subject 17) and both the Air Law, written and oral examinations (subjects 20 and 21), and
  • to ensure that the applicant meets the recent experience requirements of rule 66.57, and
  • to ensure that the applicant meets the Fit and Proper Person requirement in accordance with section 10 of the Act.


  • Examination credits are not accepted.
  • CAA does not transfer overseas licence privileges, only the applicable and equivalent New Zealand type rating/s as endorsed on the licence and if they are currently on the New Zealand aircraft register.
  • The FAA A & P Certificate, or other ICAO state Certificates based on the FAA Certificate, are not recognised.
  • EASA/JAA Category A licences are not recognised.
  • Applicants will be required to complete the Fit and Proper Person Questionnaire - CAA 24FPP, and satisfy the Director that the issue of the document is not contrary to the interests of aviation safety.

66.9(b)(2) - Fit and proper person test

Refer to explanatory notes for rule 66.9(a)(1) above.

66.9(b)(5) – Medical condition that creates risk or harm

Same as explanatory notes for rule 66.9(a)(5) above.

66.9(b)(6) - English language test

Refer to explanatory notes for rule 66.9(a)(2) above.

66.9(c) - Australian licence recognition

Holders of licences and certificates issued by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia who apply for recognition in New Zealand in order to gain a New Zealand licence are required to:

  • pass examination subject 020 – Written Air Law (but are not required to pass subject 021), and
  • provide evidence of aircraft type/rating experience, and
  • have CASA verify the licence and/or certificates to CAA, and
  • complete the Fit and Proper Person Questionnaire - CAA 24FPP to satisfy the Director that the issue of the document is not contrary to the interests of aviation safety.

Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Act (TTMRA)

Holders of Australian licences and certificates may apply for recognition of their Australian privileges to exercise equivalent New Zealand privileges in New Zealand on New Zealand registered aircraft in accordance with NZ CAR Part 43. However, prior to exercising such privileges, the Australian licence and/or certificate must be registered with CAA (NZ) using application form CAA 24066-08(external link) Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Act – Licence registration – AME.

This process allows for the Australian licences and certificates holder to use their Australian qualification privileges on New Zealand registered aircraft.

66.11     Duration of licences and certificates

A licence is issued under Part 66 for the lifetime of the holder. It is, therefore, important that licence and certificate holders advise the Director when they change their personal details, such as contact details or name. This is a requirement of the Act.

Licences, certificates of maintenance approval, and certificates of inspection authorisation do not need to be forwarded to the Director with applications for amendment, such as rating issue or renewal. On receipt of the new or replacement document, responsibility falls upon the holder to destroy and dispose of the expired or superseded document.

Certificates of maintenance approval may be issued for any period up to 5 years. The period of issue will depend on the purpose for which the certificate has been issued. Where an approval is issued to allow practical experience to be gained, it will be issued for the minimum time required for that experience.

Certificates of inspection authorisation may be issued for any period up to 5 years.

Any licence, certificate of maintenance approval, or certificate of inspection authorisation that has been suspended or revoked is to be forwarded to the Director. “As soon as practicable” means without delay, having regard for the circumstances of the holder.

Lost or stolen documents

If a licence or certificate is lost, or is stolen, the document may be replaced. You will need to submit to the Director a completed CAA600 form, pay the appropriate fee and produce written evidence that the loss, or theft, has been reported to the local police.

66.13     Examinations

This rule requires examination candidates to produce documented proof of their identity to the examination invigilator. All means of identification must be current and valid. The types of photographic identification that are acceptable to the Director for purposes of rule 66.13(a)(1) are:

  • A New Zealand or foreign passport,
  • Photographic identity cards issued by the New Zealand Defence Force, New Zealand Police, New Zealand Fire Service, New Zealand Transport Agency; or CAA Airport Identity Card,
  • New Zealand Firearms Licence, or
  • Statutory declaration of photographic identity made in accordance with the Oaths and Declarations Act 1957.

The minimum pass mark for all written examinations is 70%. Applicants should ensure that they retain course certificates or examination result notices until the licence, rating, or certificate the examination or course relates to, has been issued.

Written examination passes are valid for the lifetime of the holder, except for the Written Air Law examination (subject 20) which is valid for 5 years from the date it was passed. This means an applicant must apply and have the licence issued within 5 years of completing the Air Law examination (subject 20). If an applicant fails to have the licence issued within 5 years of sitting the Air Law examination, that subject must be re-sat and passed.

Before sitting the Oral Air Law examination (subject 21) the applicant must have completed all written examinations required for the licence issue and have completed the required practical experience listed in rule 66.53(a)(4).

Any examination, written or oral, failed 3 times in succession requires a 3-month stand down period from the date of the last attempt. This is to allow the candidate to suitably review the subject material prior to a further sitting.

66.14     Re-examination of licences

The holder of Part 66 document may be re-examined to establish competency if the Director considers such an action as necessary. This was an existing rule reprinted from the revoked rule 19.401.

Competency may be demonstrated by means as described in rule 66.57 ‘Currency’ below. However, the Director may also elect to have a written or oral examination, or an interview to determine the level of competency. As a result of the re-examination the Director may vary or cancel the holder’s document.

66.15     Cheating or other unauthorised conduct

Copying from another candidate, referring to an unauthorised source of information, communicating during an examination, taking an examination on behalf of another candidate, illicitly recording an examination, removal of propriety information or any form of cheating during any examination, or failure to comply with any direction given to candidates from the examination invigilator/facilitator will result in the examination being terminated for examination for the candidate, with no refund of fees.

If the facilitator believes that a person has attempted, committed or has procured another person to sit an examination, the candidate may be liable to prosecution and fines in accordance with the Act or the Crimes Act 1961. The candidate will not be permitted to undertake any further AMEL examinations for a period of 12 months. The candidate may ultimately face suspension or revocation of any licence or certificate issued in accordance with the Act.

However, before any action is taken, the Director will reasonably inform the person in writing of the details of the alleged conduct.

66.17     Offences involving alcohol or drugs

Refer to the CAA website Safety/Health and Safety – Drugs and alcohol.

Alcohol affects the central nervous system, slowing down the messages between the brain and the body. It affects concentration and coordination and slows the ability to respond to unexpected situations. The effect is directly proportional to the concentration of alcohol in the blood. Hence it presents a safety issue for the affected and those around them.

A conviction relating to drugs or alcohol or refusal to lawfully submit to a test brings a person’s fit and proper status into question. Such a conviction may result in the suspension, revocation or refusal to grant a licence.

66.19     Medical Requirements

No Part 66 document holders should perform the privileges of their licence if they have a known medical condition in contravention of section 10(1)(d) of the Act. A Part 66 document holder should report to the CAA any medically significant changes that may have an impact on their fit and proper person status.

Upon receipt of a notification, the CAA will follow its standard process for assessing whether appropriate interventions, if any, are needed, such as restrictions on a licence. The CAA will use its risk-based and professional, regulatory skills to determine the appropriate intervention, in line with its Regulatory Operating Model.


A medical condition is a condition that could or is likely to interfere or reduce the safe exercise of the privileges or the safe performance of the duties relevant to the holder’s licence. It may include but is not restricted to:

  • an illness or injury, infirmity or incapacity, mental infirmity or incapacity,
  • any sequela from an illness, infirmity or incapacity,
  • an abnormal psychological state, or
  • drug addiction and drug dependence.

Please also refer to Appendix 6 of this AC for more detail.

Subpart B - Aircraft Maintenance Engineer Licence (AMEL)

66.53     Eligibility requirements

66.53(a)(2) - Examinations

For the issue of a licence, this rule requires that the examinations that have been passed are acceptable to the Director and are relevant to the duties and responsibilities or an aircraft maintenance engineer in the category of licence sought. Appendix 5 details the structure and layout of the examination syllabuses.

Table 1 details the examinations requirements for each category.  The table identifies each subject number (column 2) and name (column 3) and indicates the AC that contains the syllabus and other relevant material for each subject (column 1). The numbers of examinations to be passed in respect of each category are as follows:

Table 1

AMEL Basic Examination requirements



Subject Name

Licence Category












Aero. Science - Maths & Physics











Aero. Science - Electrical Fund.













Aircraft Engineering Knowledge












Aircraft Materials












Aeroplanes I











Aeroplanes II























Piston Engines












Turbine Engines












Avionics I












Avionics II












Electrical Systems












Instruments Systems












Radio Systems












Compass Compensation












Human Factors









AC66 -2.18














Air Law - Written












Air Law - Oral









Number of examinations










Notes: – prior to issue in following categories stated exams required



Prior to the issue of a pressurised aircraft type rating in Groups 5 or 6, a pass in Subject 5 is required.




Prior to the issue of category, either subjects 4 or 6 and either subjects 7 or 8 required, dependent upon the aspirations of the candidate.  Candidates only need to take one each of the paired subjects.

All four subjects must be taken for all four rating specialities



Prior to the issue of a type rating in Group 2 a pass in subjects 12 & 13 is required



Prior to the issue of a rating in Group 2 or 3 a pass in subjects 12 &14 is required



Prior to the issue of a rating in Groups 2, 3 or 4 a pass in subjects 12 &15 is required




Note 1: To perform maintenance on an aeroplane or rotorcraft principally constructed of FRP (fibreglass reinforced plastic) the holder must hold the specific type rating or applicable group rating, and have passed subject 22 or completed and obtained a competency certificate from an industry conducted course of at least 6 hours or equivalent on-line training.

Note 2: The holder of either Aeroplane or Rotorcraft Group 2 rating will be granted the applicable Group 1 rating. The holder of a Powerplant Group 2 will be granted the Group 1 rating if AC66-2.7 Subject 07 Piston engines has been passed.

Note 3: Aeroplane, Rotorcraft, Powerplant, Electrical, Instrument and Radio rated AMEL holders may perform both weight and balance calculations. Only Aeroplane and Rotorcraft rated AMEL holders can perform physical weight and balance tasks.

Note 4: Applicants for restricted licence coverage, applicable to vintage or amateur-built aircraft with little or no avionic equipment, may be exempt from examination in Subject 11 – Avionics I.   Licences issued under this exemption shall be endorsed - Not valid for avionic privileges, or the additional privileges of Part 66 Appendix C.

Transition arrangement

In different ways, the procedures of this AC will have an impact on all Part 66 licence holders and maintenance organisations certificated under Part 145 Aircraft Maintenance Organisations – Certification. The procedures requiring transitional provisions are those for rules 66.11, 66.53, 66.57, 66.19, 66.103(3), Appendix B.1 (d) and (e), and Appendix C.

To address transitional matters, affected parties will be given until October 2021 to transition to the new regime. The timeframe is negotiable with consultation from affected parties with the CAA. The new regime will apply as of 01 September 2021.

Grandfather provisions

The skills and training to maintain Aeroplane rating categories Group 4 is largely the same as those for Groups 1 and Group 2, except for some specialised training required for FRP in Group 4. This similarity is expected to become greater in the future as new aircraft construction material is introduced, phasing out the older materials of Group 4. Therefore, the training for construction materials for Group 4 is also covered in Groups 1 and Group 2, making Group 4 redundant.


Holders of Aircraft Group 4 ratings will be able to continue with the privilege of maintenance and release to service currently enjoyed for the aircraft that would formerly have fallen in this category, regardless of holding a Group 1 or 2 rating. However, no further Group 4 ratings will be granted, and those holding a Group 4 licence will not automatically be granted either Group 1 or Group 2 ratings.

Engineers holding avionic ratings may continue to exercise their existing privileges based on ‘competence/currency’ for ‘Complex Avionic Systems’ which currently exist outside of type ratings.

66.53(a)(3) - Oral Air Law Examination

Rule 66.53(3) requires the successful completion of an oral examination covering the applicant’s understanding and practical application of the duties and responsibilities exercised by the holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer's licence including all aircraft documentation.

The Oral Air Law examination, subject 21, is acceptable for this. A pass grade in this examination is required before the initial issue of an aircraft maintenance engineer’s licence in any category. The examination is only required to be taken and passed once for the first category.

66.53(a)(4) - Practical experience and training

Licence issue experience

Practical aviation experience requirements for licence issue vary depending on the method by which the applicant has gained training—

  • An engineer that has not undertaken any formal engineering training but has completed the required examinations through self-study methods will be required to complete 5 years of practical aviation engineering experience;
  • An engineer who has completed a traineeship in an aviation technical trade will be required to complete 4 years of practical aviation experience. These 4 years includes the time spent in formal technical training. The training could comprise a range of formal block courses or a continuous non-integrated training course. RNZAF training is considered to meet this requirement;
  • Engineers who have successfully completed a traineeship in an allied engineering trade require 3 years of aviation related practical experience. This is in addition to any practical experience gained when qualifying for the allied trade qualification. An allied trade is a technical trade similar in nature to aviation trades such as, automotive engineering, general engineering, and electronic engineering; and
  • Engineers that undertake a course of training conducted by a certificated Part 147 organisation that holds the appropriate Certificate ratings (E1 – E4) will need to show 3 years of aviation related experience which includes the time spent on integrated aviation training. The course will need to include supervised training and practical experience.

Category experience

A period of 2 years of practical experience is required relating to the specific category being sought. For example, an applicant for a powerplant category is required to show 2 years of powerplant maintenance experience. The balance of the required experience may consist of experience in any of the other categories.

Practical experience for two or more categories may be gained concurrently if the nature of the job allows for this. For example, typically in a general aviation hangar, a tradesperson would work on both aeroplane and powerplant category type maintenance concurrently.

Rule 66.53(c)(2) provides for an engineer who has exercised the privileges of an aircraft maintenance engineer licence for 10 years or more, the holder is entitled to an additional category of licence if he or she has completed 1 year of appropriate experience.

Documenting practical experience

Practical experience for the issue of an AME Licence and Categories should be documented in a suitable Practical Training Record (PTR). This should be set out or highlighted so the experience can be readily linked to the applicable licence and/or category that is being applied for.

The format of any acceptable PTR should:

  • provide an overview of experience /employment in the aviation industry, detailing relevant qualifications, training and courses;
  • list experience that must be detailed, accurate, comprehensive and verifiable; and
  • list specific tasks completed, being countersigned by a supervising LAME; and
  • provide details of the dates and the specific aircraft or components worked on.

As a guide, a typical PTR format has been included in Appendix 4.

66.55     Privileges and limitations

To exercise the privileges of an AMEL the holder must be appropriately rated. A list of ratings is detailed on the CAA website under Licensing & Certification/ Type ratings for AMEL holders.

The demarcations between each licence category are published in Appendix 2.

66.55(a) - Part 145 Demarcation

Rule 43.54 details the maintenance that must be carried out under the authority of, and according to the provision of, a maintenance organisation certificate issued under Part 145. Aircraft and aircraft components maintained under this Part may only be released to service by a person authorised to do so by the certificated maintenance organisation. Ratings covering aircraft and aircraft components that are required to be maintained by a Part 145 maintenance organisation may be added to an AMEL issued under Part 66. Before annotating such a rating, the appropriate experience and examinations acceptable to the Director must be obtained.

These ratings alone do not provide release-to-service privileges – such privileges are conferred by an authorisation issued by the Part 145 certificated maintenance organisation.

These ratings:

  • have been retained as a method of indicating examination and practical experience qualification in a transportable manner, and
  • are restricted to aircraft, or system, type and component groups and are described in Part 66 Appendix B.2, and in the list of ratings detailed on the CAA website under Licensing & Certification/ Type ratings for AMEL holders.

66.55(b) - Competency

Before exercising the privileges of an AMEL, the engineer must be competent with the specific aircraft, system or component being maintained.

This is applicable to all ratings, be it a Group rating or Type rating.

For Group ratings, the engineer should be competent with at least two or three different types representative of the Group; e.g. Group 1 Aeroplane - Cessna 152 and Fletcher FU-24 series; or, Group 2 Rotorcraft - Bell 206 and AS350

For Type ratings, the engineer should be competent with the specific variants or models with the type rating.

E.g. - Powerplant Type Ratings, where the type may cover full authority digital engine (or electronics) control (FADEC) variants. The engineer must have completed specific training on the FADEC system or models.

The engineer should have a thorough knowledge of the appropriate maintenance manual, and other Instructions for Continued Airworthiness (ICA), and understand the acceptable standards and practices required by Part 43. The engineer should have practical experience of the task to be performed, or of a task of similar nature.

Demonstration of competency is shown in a similar manner as currency, which is covered in rule 66.57 below.

66.55(c) - Special Test Equipment

Special test equipment is not in itself defined. Test equipment can take on a special role if detailed in a maintenance procedure, but special test equipment would generally be equipment that required specialist knowledge to connect, operate, and interpret the results. Persons using test equipment to carry out the limited privileges specified in Part 66 Appendix C should ensure that they are adequately trained, are competent with the equipment and, in the case of special test equipment, have evidence of the required training.

Any training would need to be specific with respect to the test equipment type and type of uses. Training would include knowledge of the systems and interpretation of results. Following initial training the AME is to ensure competence/currency is maintained.

This evidence may be a certificate, or letter, from:

  • an appropriately rated AMEL holder,
  • a person authorised to conduct training on the equipment under Part 141/145/147, or
  • the test equipment manufacturer or their technical representative.

66.57 Recent experience requirements

Recent Experience

Recent experience requirements may be shown by a licence holder if, for a period of 6 continuous months within the previous 2-year term, the holder has:

  • exercised the privileges of their licence, or
  • supervised the maintenance of aircraft, or
  • performed a technical training function, or
  • a combination of the above.

A licence holder who does not have recent experience must sit and pass an oral examination covering their understanding and practical application of the duties and responsibilities exercised by the holder of an AMEL. This may be the Air Law - oral examination subject 21.


Currency and proficiency relevant to the ratings held by the licence holder may be shown by maintaining an experience log. For the purpose of upskilling in areas incurring technological advancement, or if over the previous 2 year term the licenced holder has not exercised the privileges of their ratings, they may consider completing recurrent or acceptable training conducted by an aircraft manufacturer, a Part 141, 145, or 147 Certificated Training Organisation, a foreign authority, or by the Director prior to exercising the rating privileges.

Currency may be shown by using a log like the PTR system and should provide:

  • an overview of experience /employment in the aviation industry, detailing relevant seminars attended, further qualifications obtained, training events and courses,
  • evidence of experience that is accurate and verifiable, and
  • details of dates, job number, the specific aircraft, category and ratings used.


Subpart C - Aircraft Maintenance Engineer Ratings

66.103   Eligibility requirements

To be eligible for the grant of an AMEL rating, the applicant must hold a current AMEL and meet the practical experience and examination, or course requirements detailed below.

66.103(2) - Practical experience

The rule specifies a minimum time of 6 months practical experience on the type or group of aircraft sought. Alternate, specific practical training by the aircraft or component manufacturer, a 141/145/147 Certificated Training Organisation or other experience acceptable to the Director is acceptable. This should be completed within the immediate 2 years before application to demonstrate competency and currency.

Documenting experience - Practical Training Record (PTR)

To demonstrate that 6 months practical experience has been completed for the issue of a rating, the experience should be documented in a suitable PTR. This should be set out, or highlighted so the experience is readily identifiable as relevant to the applicable rating that is being applied for.

Due to the maintenance requirements of modern aircraft, either consolidated, accelerated, simulated or specific type rating courses, that include an approved practical experience schedule for type, may be an acceptable means of compliance for the 6 months practical experience required to grant a rating.

For documenting practical experience refer to rule 66.53(a)(4) - Practical experience and training, above. As a guide, a typical PTR page has been included in Appendix 4.

Only experience specific to the rating(s) sought should be included, or highlighted in some way in the PTR. The range and depth of the relevant experience should be readily evident from an assessment of the PTR.

Rating experience requirements

Practical experience should comprise a broad cross section of maintenance tasks at both Line and Base (Hangar) Maintenance Levels and should be across all relevant systems (appropriate ATA Chapters) for the category or categories being applied for. 

Typically, this should include:

  • Completing all aspects of several line and base level routine inspections,
  • For transport category type rated aircraft, a minimum of three; and different C level type checks,
  • A cross section of the following representative tasks on various aircraft systems:
  • trouble shooting,
  • repair,
  • adjustments and rigging,
  • component and module changes,
  • functional/operational checks, and
  • use of special tooling and test equipment.

Appendix 3 lists typical tasks by aircraft systems, so it is recommended that this be referred to, in planning and documenting practical experience requirements.

Group Ratings

As a guide, acceptable practical experience for group ratings should include the following:

Aeroplane and rotorcraft categories

  • Minimum of three periodic inspections, including avionic systems,
  • Minimum of two aircraft weighings, or weight and balance calculations for the first aeroplane and the first rotorcraft rating,
  • Rectification of defects and component changes including avionic components,
  • Compass compensation for the first rating,
  • Functional testing and servicing of aircraft systems,
  • Main and tail rotor balancing,
  • Dynamic component balancing if applicable,
  • Rigging of controls,
  • System troubleshooting,

Powerplant category

  • Minimum of three periodic inspections,
  • Rectification of defects and component changes,
  • Functional testing and servicing of powerplant systems, including propulsion engine ground running,
  • Rigging of controls,
  • Hot section inspections if applicable,
  • Piston engine cylinder replacement,
  • Performance testing,
  • Engine condition monitoring if applicable,
  • Minimum of two aircraft weight and balance calculations,
  • System troubleshooting,

Electrical category

  • Periodic inspection and testing,
  • Defect analysis and rectification, including component changes,
  • Modification installation,
  • System troubleshooting,

Instrument category

  • Instrument periodic inspection and testing,
  • Defect analysis and rectification, including component changes,
  • Modification installation,
  • Compass compensation for the issue of the first rating,
  • Pitot static testing and rectifications,
  • Minimum of two aircraft weight and balance calculations,
  • System troubleshooting,

Radio category

  • Radio periodic inspection and testing,
  • Defect analysis and rectification, including component changes,
  • Modification installation,
  • Minimum of two aircraft weight and balance calculations,
  • System troubleshooting,

Lighter-than-air category

  • Periodic inspections, and
  • Fabric repairs and other rectification.

Note 1: If insufficient experience is shown for a group rating and this is due to the inability of the applicant to be exposed to more than one type within a group, the applicant may apply to have that type issued as a restricted type rating within a group. It is not intended for this to be usual practice, but the provision is included for cases of genuine need. If a genuine need cannot be substantiated, then the application will be declined.

Note 2: The holder of either Aeroplane or Rotorcraft Group 2 rating will be granted the applicable Group 1 rating. The holder of a Powerplant Group 2 rating will be granted the Group 1 rating if AC66-2.7 subject 07 Piston engines has been passed.

Type Ratings

For the issue and assessment of type ratings, practical experience and any specific on the job training (OJT) should be documented in an appropriate aircraft and/or powerplant specific type rating PTR that details/sets out the experience under the relevant systems (ATA Chapters). 

For Group 5 and 6 Aeroplanes and Group 3 Rotorcraft, the PTR will normally be developed by the Part 145 Certificated Maintenance Organisation as part of their company authorisation procedures. It should clearly detail or set out an acceptable cross section of specific tasks across the relevant systems that must be completed prior to the issue of a company authorisation. Compass compensation and weight and balance may not be applicable for the issue of a rating for aeroplanes in Aeroplane Group 6 for experience requirements.

Type rating PTRs may also be developed by a Part 147 aviation training organisation for their type rating courses.

66.103(3) - Examinations and courses

Type Ratings Courses

Type ratings require the completion of an approved or acceptable course. A course must be:

  • conducted by the manufacturer of the applicable aircraft, or
  • conducted by a Part 147 aviation training organisation or a Part 145 maintenance organisation certificated (rule 145.11(a)(10)) with the appropriate E1-E4 rating; or
  • approved by the competent national aviation authority (NAA) of a foreign ICAO Contracting State, or
  • conducted by a training organisation acceptable to the Director, or
  • conducted by the Director.

Additionally, courses must:

  • be developed/packaged to an industry recognised standard such as - ATA Specification 104 - Guidelines for Aircraft Maintenance Training - Level III (Line and Base Level Maintenance), or an equivalent standard,
  • cover all the relevant systems (ATA chapters) for the privilege of the category of licence, and
  • cover the series of aircraft or powerplants for which the rating provides privileges.

Note: New Zealand Defence Force specific type training that meets the manufacturer’s requirements may be acceptable to the Director, subject to assessment and acceptance by the CAA and the aircraft type currently being included on the New Zealand register.

Type rating courses should be completed within 2 years to ensure competency and currency on type. If more than 2 years has expired since course completion, the currency of type course may be satisfactory if the holder can show continuous or significant recent practical experience on the type since completion of the course.

In cases where approved courses are not available and the provisioning of an oral or written examination is within the capabilities of CAA or ASPEQ, an examination may be conducted by ASPEQ.

For primarily constructed fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) Group 5 and 6 aeroplanes and Group 3 rotorcraft, a pass in subject 22 may not be required if FRP maintenance is part of a specific type rating course; or if the applicant has completed a specific course relating to FRP maintenance acceptable to the Director. Contact CAA Licencing and Standards team for details of acceptable courses.

Aircraft containing complex electrical, instrument or radio systems require the document holder to have completed a type rating course and have this annotated on their licence.

Group Ratings

Group ratings require the completion of acceptable rating examinations. Acceptable examinations for group ratings are detailed in Appendix 1.

Should an acceptable course be available covering a specific rating group, or individual aircraft in Aeroplane Category Group 5, the applicant may qualify for the rating by successfully completing the approved course and meeting the practical experience requirements.

Note: Applicants should check with CAA before attending a course to ensure it is acceptable.

For an aeroplane rating in Group 5 (restricted) rating, apply to ASPEQ for the appropriate rating examination. If no examination is available, then an aircraft oral examination will be conducted for the type rating. To be granted a group 5 (restricted) aeroplane rating, a pass in AC66-2.5 subject 5 Aeroplanes II is required. An unrestricted group 5 rating may be granted subject to the applicant holding two or three group 5 (restricted) specific type ratings representative of the group.

Subpart D - Certificate of Maintenance Approval (MA)

66.153   Eligibility requirements

The certificate is issued to suitably qualified persons to permit the performance of maintenance and the release to service of aircraft or aircraft components within the limitations annotated on the certificate. Certificates of MA are not issued as a replacement document for an AMEL.

Restrictions may be placed on the certificate that include the limiting of privileges to specific inspection levels or specific components or require the direct supervision by a fully qualified person. For the issue of a certificate of MA the rule requires the applicant to:

  • provide evidence of appropriate practical experience, and
  • hold a pass in acceptable examinations or an approved course, as appropriate.

Examination requirements may include the full suite of examinations required for the issue of an AMEL or they may be any lesser number that the Director may determine. This will depend on the extent of the privileges to be granted, the technical background of the applicant, and the extent of the applicant's aviation related practical experience.

Amateur-built aeroplanes

In the case of amateur-built aeroplanes issued with a special category, experimental airworthiness certificate, the primary constructor will be required to undertake a minimum number of examinations.

This is based on the assessment that the education process involved in the construction of the aircraft is considered an acceptable level of knowledge on aircraft of that construction type. The examination (subject 180) will cover maintenance requirements, and Air Law. If weight and balance, and compass compensation, privileges are required, further examination on these subjects will be required.

The minimum requirements for an applicant who is not the primary constructor of an amateur-built aircraft are either:

  • to complete examination subjects 02, 03, 04 07, 20 and 21. (In addition, subject 16 is required for compass compensation privileges), or
  • to complete an acceptable course and examination (subject 180).

Specific Maintenance Tasks

The minimum examination standard required for an unlicensed engineer is either:

  • a successful pass of a composite examination covering the technical aspects of the certificate of MA coverage and Air Law; or
  • an approved course covering the technical aspects and a pass in an acceptable Air Law examination acceptable to the Director for the maintenance task or tasks to be undertaken.

Practical Experience for LAME

To gain the full practical experience required for a rating, rule 66.155(b)(1) provides for a LAME to be eligible for issue of a certificate of MA. The prerequisite is that the examination or type-course requirements for the rating have been met and a minimum acceptable level of practical experience has been gained already; or

A successful pass in a composite examination covering the technical aspects of the certificate of MA coverage, acceptable to the Director.

The practical experience required before the issue of a certificate of MA will vary, depending on the limitations to be applied to the certificate. The following should be considered when demonstrating appropriate practical experience of aircraft or aircraft component maintenance to gain certificate issue—


Experience levels should include periodic inspections, defect analysis and rectification, component replacement, servicing, and functional testing.


Performance of maintenance on the specific aircraft or component covered by the certificate of MA, must be under the supervision of a fully qualified person, that is:

  • a rated aircraft maintenance engineer,
  • an approved training organisation,
  • a manufacturer’s technical representative, or
  • a foreign operator approved by the competent authority of that State.

may be acceptable as grounds for a reduced level of required practical experience for certificate issue. This supervision should be carried out on site during maintenance tasks, remote supervision is not acceptable.

Similar existing rating coverage

Evidence of limited experience on type, plus evidence of experience or a rating on similar aircraft or aircraft components may be acceptable grounds for a reduction in the required practical experience for certificate issue. An example is a turbine engine of an earlier model that has the same basic technology but different components.

New aircraft introduction

Due to the introduction of a new type of aircraft or aircraft component new ratings must be issued or gained. The necessary experience period is accommodated by the Director issuing certificates of MA in the interim.

When a certificate of MA is required, the individual, or organisation, introducing the aircraft or aircraft component should submit a schedule of intended practical training or OJT to CAA. This will be assessed for acceptance before commencement of the training.

Subpart E - Certificate of Inspection Authorisation (IA)

66.203   Eligibility requirements

To be eligible for a certificate of IA the applicant must meet the requirements of rule 66.203. It is important to note that the applicant must hold a group or type rating on a current aircraft maintenance engineer licence.

  • For the Mechanical IA - Aeroplane/Rotorcraft and Powerplant, or
  • For the Avionic IA – Electrical Group 1, Instrument Group 1&2, and Radio Group 1,2,3.

Applicants must:

  • have held the licence for at least 5 years,
  • have recent and current experience, and
  • complete an IA course.

Note 1: Aeroplane, Rotorcraft or Powerplant rated LAMEs would not perform conformity of complex avionics modifications and repairs.

Note 2: Electrical, Instrument or Radio rated LAMEs would only be permitted to perform the conformity of avionics modifications and repairs.

The course of instruction in rule 66.203(b)(4) is an IA Initial Issue Course that is specific to the certificate of inspection authorisation and is conducted by the Director, or a Part 147 training organisation.

66.205   Privileges and limitations

The IA certificate entitles:

  • Mechanical IA holders to perform and certify the review of airworthiness in accordance with Part 43 Subpart D and conformity of major repairs and modifications excepting complex avionics, and
  • Avionic IA holders to only certify conformity against technical data after completion of avionic modifications and repairs in accordance with Part 43 Subpart E.


The rule does not specifically require that the holder of a certificate of IA be rated on each aircraft that the holder performs a review of airworthiness or conformity on.

However, similar to the competence requirements of rule 66.55(b) to exercise the privileges of the AMEL, and rule 43.53(1) for the performance of all maintenance, the holder of a certificate of IA must be at least familiar with the specific aircraft type to perform a review of airworthiness. Without being familiar, the holder of an IA cannot be reasonably assured that all the requirements for the performance of the review of airworthiness or the conformity have been met.

Holders of IAs who are not familiar on type cannot perform a review of airworthiness to an acceptable standard to meet the requirements of Rule Part 43 Subpart D.

Familiarity with a modification or repair will be required to exercise the privileges of the Certificate in particular for large and complicated avionic modifications and repairs. Conformity of avionics major modifications require knowledge and understanding of the installation process regarding the approved or accepted technical data. Such process includes but is not limited to:

  • wiring terminations,
  • calibrated tooling and techniques,
  • wire marking, wire routing,
  • functional and EMC testing and results,
  • software version,
  • lengths and loss requirements of antenna feeders,
  • antenna location and separation requirements,
  • compatibility with interfaced equipment, and
  • pre-existing modifications.

Mechanical rated IA holders would not certify for conformity of large or complex ‘avionic modifications or repairs’.

 66.207  Recent experience requirements

This rule prescribes the recent experience requirements concerning the certificate. It is emphasised that performing the routine or 100-hour inspection does not count towards maintaining recent experience for a certificate of inspection authorisation. However, the 100-hour inspection would conform to the requirement of rule 66.207(2) where the holder of an IA certificate has exercised their AMEL privileges for a period of 6 months over the last 2 years.

Rule 66.11 provides for a certificate of inspection authorisation to be issued for a period up to 5 years. To gain a new certificate of inspection authorisation the holder should apply to attend an IA Renewal Course. Applicants may complete such a course up to 1 year prior to expiration of their certificate. Regardless, the applicant should contact the CAA at least 90 days before the expiry of the certificate to ensure a position on a course is available.

Note: The CAA does not send reminders to holders of expiring Certificates of IA.



Part 66 Appendices

Appendix A - Reserved


Appendix B – Group and Type Ratings

  1. Aeroplane Group 4 as a stand-alone category rating has been merged into Aeroplane Groups 1 and 2. Refer Note 1 and 2 in Appendix 1 of this AC.
  2. Rotorcraft Group 3 include all twin turbine engine aircraft by individual type and require an aircraft type-specific course.


  1. Powerplant Group 3 includes all turbine engines by individual type and require an engine type-specific course.


  1. A Powerplant LAME with a Group or Rating may carry out normal maintenance or installation and removal of an electric motor powered powerplant. An Electrical Group 2 rated LAME may also remove and fit the motor only after the qualified Powerplant LAME or holder of an applicable Maintenance Approval (MA) has removed the propeller and coolant systems. A group 2 electrical rating is required for trouble shooting the motor and monitoring and control system.
  2. Electrical Group 1 and Instrument Group 1 & 2 are not limited to weight and pressurisation status and may be applied across all aircraft not requiring a specific type rating. Electrical, instrument and radio maintenance work is different from other aircraft maintenance (e.g. engine and airframe) in that it is based upon the avionics system of the aircraft and not on the size of the aircraft. In many cases, the same electrical, instrument, or radio system is used in aircraft of different weights, and pressurised or unpressurised aircraft.


Some systems, however, are more complex than others and that complexity is not necessarily tied to the weight of the aircraft. Hence Electrical, Instrument, and Radio ratings are based on the complexity of a particular avionic system, regardless of aircraft size. To conduct maintenance on more complex electrical, instrument, and radio systems, aircraft type-specific ratings are required to ensure appropriate training and qualification.


Appendix C – Limited Privileges

An AME holding a category licence is able to exercise limited privileges in other categories. For example the Aeroplane, Rotorcraft, Powerplant, Electrical and Instrument rated LAMEs are limited with regard to ANY radio system existing and of future design, to the maintenance and functional testing of certain systems or parts, and replacement of LRUs, but do not have the privilege of modification and installation of the avionics equipment. Holders of Electrical, Instrument and Radio Category ratings are limited to perform weight and balance re-calculations but not the actual weight and balance task which uses weighing equipment.

For the relevant limited privileges listed in Appendix C of the rule, the LAME however must be competent and needs to have access to any special test equipment where required to carry out the limited privilege.

Competency for gaining limited privileges may be shown by using a log similar to the PTR system and should detail relevant training to hold this privilege, including but not limited to dates of training or experience, job number, notes on the specific aircraft category and other details, as relevant.


Note: In addition to the appendices B and C, above, some additional appendices with general guidance have been included in this version of the AC.


APPENDIX 1 - Categories and Ratings described


  Rating Group - Ref Rule Part 66 for full Group description

Examinations / Course req.


Group 1

Metal skin, unpress, < 5700kg, fixed u/c

60 Written + for FRP 22 written or industry course


Group 2

Metal skin, unpress, < 5700kg, not Gp 1

62 Written + for FRP 22 written or industry course


Group 3

Wood or Tube structure, fabric cover

23 + 64 Written






Group 5

Specific Type - Press, < 5700kg

5 + rating exam / course


Group 6

Specific Type - Press, > 5700kg

5 + type rating course






Group 1

Piston engine rotorcraft other than Gp 3

80 written


Group 2

Turbine engine rotorcraft other than Gp 3

82 written


Group 3

Specific Type - considered other than Gp 1 or 2

type rating course






Group 1

Normally aspirated piston engine

7 + 70 written


Group 2

Turbo, supercharged & radial piston engine

7 + 72 written


Group 3

Specific Type - Turbines

8 + type rating course






Group 1

Electrical systems

90 written


Group 2

Specific Type - elec. a/c with Complex systems

12,13 + type rating course






Group 1

General a/c Inst. systems

93 written


Group 2

Auto flight & Nav systems

12,14 + 95 written


Group 3

Specific Type – a/c with complex flight systems

12,14 + type rating course






Group 1

Airborne Comms. systems

101 written


Group 2

Airborne Nav. systems

12,15 + 103 written


Group 3

Airborne Radar systems

12,15 + 105 written


Group 4

Specific Type – a/c complex radio systems

12,15 + type rating course





LTA Aircraft

Group 1

Hot air free balloons and airships

18 + 200 oral


Group 2

Gas filled airships and components

18 + 201 oral

Legend – endorsed on licence


   X - Group Ratings


   R - Individual Type Ratings






Note 1: To perform maintenance on an Aeroplane or Rotorcraft principally constructed of FRP the holder must hold the specific type rating or applicable group rating and, have passed subject 22 or completed and obtained a competency certificate from an industry conducted course of at least 6 hours or equivalent on-line training.

Note 2: For primarily constructed FRP Group 5 and 6 aeroplanes and Group 3 rotorcraft a pass in subject 22 may not be required if FRP maintenance is part of a specific type rating course; or if the applicant has completed a specific course relating to FRP maintenance acceptable to the Director. Contact CAA Personnel Licencing for details of acceptable courses.

Note 3: The holder of either Aeroplane or Rotorcraft Group 2 will be granted the applicable Group 1 Rating. The holder a Powerplant Group 2 will be granted the Group 1 rating if AC66-2.7 subject 07, Piston engines, has been passed.

Note 4: FADEC version powerplants will require specific type rating training.

Note 5: For an aeroplane rating in Group 5 (restricted) apply to ASPEQ for the appropriate rating examination. If no examination is available, then an on-aircraft oral examination will be conducted for the type rating. To be granted a group 5 (restricted) aeroplane, a pass in AC66-2.5 subject 5, Aeroplanes II, is required. An unrestricted Group 5 rating may be granted subject to the applicant holding two or three group 5 (restricted) specific type ratings representative of the group.


APPENDIX 2 - Category Demarcations

To determine which areas / systems of an aircraft are the responsibility of the various licence categories and ratings, the following demarcations apply. It is the responsibility of all certifying engineers to ensure that, where there is an overlap of responsibility with other licence categories, a holder of the appropriate licence is notified of the subsequent work required before the aircraft or aircraft component is returned to service.



Encompasses all parts of the aeroplane other than those stated as being the responsibility of another licence. Encompasses the relevant parts of the categories and includes following–

Encompasses all parts of the rotorcraft other than those stated as being the responsibility of other licence categories and includes the relevant parts of the following–

(i)        aircraft structure;

(ii)       control surfaces;

(iii)      control systems;

(iv)      hydraulic systems;

(v)       pneumatic systems;

(vi)      pressurisation systems;

(vii)     air conditioning systems;

(viii)    oxygen systems;

(ix)      de-icing and anti-icing systems;

(x)       landing gear systems;

(xi)      fuel and other liquid tanks and plumbing not             forming part of the engine installation;

(xii)     fire protection systems;

(xiii)    cabin and cockpit furnishings;

(xiv)    role equipment;

(xv)     wind shield clear vision systems;

(xvi)    emergency equipment;

(xvii)   weight and balance;

(xviii) APU (auxiliary power unit) systems.



(i)          structure;

(ii)         rotor hubs and blades;

(iii)        control systems;

(iv)        hydraulic systems;

(v)         pneumatic systems;

(vi)        air conditioning systems;

(vii)        oxygen systems; (viii)           de-icing and anti-icing systems;

(ix)        landing gear systems;

(x)         fuel and other liquid tanks and plumbing not forming part of the engine installation;

(xi)        fire protection systems;

(xii)       cabin and cockpit furnishings;

(xiii)      role equipment;

(xiv)      wind shield clear vision systems;

(xv)       emergency equipment;

(xvi)      transmissions and drive systems, excluding rotorcraft reduction gear boxes or power input coupling gear boxes provided by the engine manufacturer;

(xvii)   weight and balance;

(xviii) APU (auxiliary power unit) systems.






Encompasses the following–

Encompasses all parts of the aircraft electrical system including the following–

(i)        engine and propeller;

(ii)       engine mounting and firewalls;

(iii)      engine exhaust system, including thrust reversers, reheat, tail pipe assemblies and exhaust-type cabin heating units;

(iv)      components and items of equipment attached to or driven by the engine but excluding rotorcraft transmission and drive systems;

(v)       engine controls, including variable intake, propeller, fuel, oil, anti-icing, de-icing, and other controls associated with engine operation;

(vi)      ignition, fuel, oil, fire extinguisher, anti-icing and de-icing systems, and other systems associated with engine operation, but excluding fuel and water-methanol tanks and associated plumbing not forming a part of the engine installation;

(vii)     compressor bleed air systems contained within the engine installation sections;

(viii)    engine cowlings;

(ix)      APU (auxiliary power unit);

(x)       electric motor driven powerplant.

(xi)      weight & balance calculation.

(i)          all parts of the electrical power generation, supply, distribution, and control systems;

(ii)         all other electrical systems and components associated with the electrical installation, excluding instruments and radio but including multiplex systems and EICAS; and

(iii)        aircraft batteries;

(iv)         electric motor driven powerplant;

(v)          weight & balance calculation.






Encompasses all parts of the aircraft instrument system including the following–

Encompasses all parts of the aircraft radio system including the following–

(i)        vacuum, pressure, and electrically operated instruments;

(ii)       direct and remote reading magnetic compasses, including compensation;

(iii)      gyro instruments;

(iv)      automatic pilots, auto-flight control systems, and integrated flight control systems;

(v)       oxygen systems;

(vi)      flight data recorders;

(vii)     inertial navigation systems;

(viii)    cabin pressurisation and air conditioning control systems;

(ix)      multiplex systems;

(x)       EICAS;

(xi)      EFIS;

(xii)     flight director, air data computer system;

(xiii)    GPWS;

(xiv)    GPS;

(xv)     instrument panels, shock mounts, bonding, cables, and looms;

(xvi)    weight & balance calculation.

(i)          radio communications systems;

(ii)         radio navigation systems;

(iii)        audio intercommunication and passenger address-entertainment systems, and multiplex systems;

(iv)        radar navigation and alerting systems;

(v)         radio racks, shock mounts, bonding, cables, and looms;

(vi)        radio system instruments and power supplies;

(vii)       GPWS;

(viii)      GPS;

(ix)        EFIS;

(x)         weight & balance calculation.




Encompasses all parts of the aircraft other than those stated as being the responsibility of other licence categories and includes the relevant parts of the following–

(i)        aircraft structure including envelope;

(ii)       control surfaces;

(iii)      control systems;

(iv)      hydraulic systems;

(v)       pneumatic systems;

(vi)      envelope pressurisation systems;

(vii)     air conditioning systems;

(viii)    oxygen systems;

(ix)        landing gear systems;

(x)         fuel and other liquid tanks, gas bottles, and plumbing not forming part of the engine

(xi)        fire protection systems;

(xii)       cabin and cockpit furnishings;

(xiii)      role equipment;

(xiv)      wind shield clear vision systems;

(xv)       emergency equipment installation;

(iv)          weight & balance calculation.


APPENDIX 3 - List of typical maintenance tasks

5      Time limits/Maintenance checks

        100-hour check (general aviation aircraft).

        “B” or “C” check (transport category aircraft).

        Review records for compliance with airworthiness directives.

        Review records for compliance with component life limits.

        Procedure for Inspection following heavy landing.

        Procedure for Inspection following lightning strike.


6      Dimensions/Areas

        Locate component(s) by station number.

        Perform symmetry check.


7      Lifting and Shoring

        Assist in:

        Jack aircraft nose or tail wheel.

        Jack complete aircraft.

        Sling or trestle major component.


8      Levelling/Weighing

        Level aircraft.

        Weigh aircraft.

        Prepare W & B amendment.

        Check aircraft against equipment list.


9      Towing and Taxiing

        Tow aircraft.

        Be part of aircraft towing team.


10    Parking and mooring

        Tie down aircraft.

        Park, secure and cover aircraft.

        Position aircraft in dock.

        Secure rotor blades.


11    Placards and Markings

        Check aircraft for correct placards.

        Check aircraft for correct markings.


12    Servicing

        Refuel aircraft.

        Defuel aircraft.

        Check tire pressures.

        Check oil level.

        Check hydraulic fluid level.

        Check accumulator pressure.

        Charge pneumatic system.

        Grease aircraft.

        Connect ground power.

        Service toilet/water system

        Perform pre-flight/daily check.


18    Vibration and Noise Analysis

        Analyse helicopter vibration problem.

        Analyse noise spectrum.


21    Air Conditioning

        Replace combustion heater.

        Replace outflow valve.

        Replace vapour cycle unit.

        Replace air cycle unit.

        Replace cabin blower.

        Replace heat exchanger.

        Replace pressurisation controller.

        Clean outflow valves.

        Check operation of air conditioning/heating system

        Check operation of pressurisation system

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


22    Auto flight

        Install servos.

        Rig bridle cables

        Replace controller.

        Replace amplifier.

        Check operation of auto-pilot.

        Check operation of auto-throttle.

        Check operation of yaw damper.

        Check and adjust servo clutch.

        Perform autopilot gain adjustments.

        Perform mach trim functional check.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.

        Check autoland system

        Check flight management systems

        Check stability augmentation system.


23    Communications

        Replace VHF com unit.

        Replace HF com unit.

        Replace existing antenna.

        Replace static discharge wicks.

        Check operation of radios.

        Perform antenna VSWR check.

        Perform Selcal operational check.

        Perform operational check of passenger address system.

        Functionally check audio integrating system.

        Repair co-axial cable.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


24    Electrical Power

        Charge lead/acid battery.

        Charge ni-cad battery.

        Check battery capacity.

        Deep-cycle ni-cad battery.

        Replace generator/alternator.

        Replace switches.

        Replace circuit breakers.

        Adjust voltage regulator.

        Amend electrical load analysis report.

        Repair/replace electrical feeder cable.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


25    Equipment/Furnishings

        Replace carpets

        Replace crew seats.

        Replace passenger seats.

        Check inertia reels.

        Check seats/belts for security.

        Check emergency equipment.

        Check ELT for compliance with regulations.

        Repair toilet waste container.

        Repair upholstery.

        Change cabin configuration.


26    Fire protection

        Check fire bottle contents.

        Check operation of warning system.

        Check cabin fire extinguisher contents.

        Check lavatory smoke detector system.

        Install new fire bottle.

        Replace fire bottle squib.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.

        Inspect engine fire wire detection systems.


27    Flight Controls

        Replace horizontal stabiliser.

        Replace elevator.

        Replace aileron.

        Replace rudder.

        Replace trim tabs.

        Install control cable and fittings.

        Replace flaps.

        Replace powered flying control unit

        Replace flap actuator

        Adjust trim tab.

        Adjust control cable tension.

        Check control range and sense of movement.

        Check for correct assembly and locking.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


28    Fuel

        Replace booster pump.

        Replace fuel selector.

        Replace fuel tank cells.

        Check filters.

        Flow check system.

        Check calibration of fuel quantity gauges.

        Check operation feed/selectors

        Troubleshoot faulty system.

29    Hydraulics

        Replace engine driven pump.

        Replace standby pump.

        Replace accumulator.

        Check operation of shut off valve.

        Check filters.

        Check indicating systems.

        Perform functional checks.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


30    Ice and rain protection

        Replace pump.

        Replace timer.

        Install wiper motor.

        Check operation of systems.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


31    Indicating/recording systems

        Replace flight data recorder.

        Replace cockpit voice recorder.

        Replace clock.

        Replace master caution unit.

        Replace FDR.

        Perform FDR data retrieval.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.

        Implement ESDS procedures

        Inspect for HIRF requirements.


32    Landing Gear

        Build up wheel.

        Replace main wheel.

        Replace nose wheel.

        Replace shimmy damper.

        Rig nose wheel steering.

        Replace shock strut seals.

        Replace brake unit.

        Replace brake control valve.

        Bleed brakes.

        Test anti-skid unit.

        Test gear retraction.

        Change bungees.

        Adjust micro switches.

        Charge struts.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.

        Test outbrake system.


33    Lights

        Repair/replace rotating beacon.

        Repair/replace landing lights.

        Repair/replace navigation lights.

        Repair/replace interior lights.

        Repair/replace emergency lighting system.

        Perform emergency lighting system checks.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


34    Navigation

        Calibrate magnetic direction indicator.

        Replace airspeed indicator.

        Replace altimeter.

        Replace air data computer.

        Replace VOR unit.

        Replace ADI.

        Replace HSI.

        Check pitot static system for leaks.

        Check operation of directional gyro.

        Functional check weather radar.

        Functional check Doppler.

        Functional check TCAS.

        Functional check DME

        Functional check ATC Transponder

        Functional check flight director system.

        Functional check inertial nav system.

        Complete quadrantal error correction of ADF system.

        Update flight management system database.

        Check calibration of pitot static instruments.

        Check calibration of pressure altitude reporting system.

        Troubleshoot faulty system

        Check marker systems

        Compass replacement direct/indirect

        Check Satcom

        Check GPS

        Test AVM.


35    Oxygen

        Inspect on board oxygen equipment.

        Purge and recharge oxygen system.

        Replace regulator.

        Replace oxygen generator.

        Test crew oxygen system.

        Perform auto oxygen system deployment check.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


36    Pneumatic systems

        Replace filter.

        Replace compressor.

        Recharge desiccators.

        Adjust regulator.

        Check for leaks.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


37    Vacuum systems

        Replace vacuum pump.

        Check/replace filters.

        Adjust regulator.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


38    Water/Waste

        Replace water pump.

        Replace tap.

        Replace toilet pump.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


45    Central Maintenance System

        Retrieve data from CMU.

        Replace CMU.

        Perform Bite check.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


49    Airborne Auxiliary power

        Install APU.

        Inspect hot section.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


51    Structures

        Sheet metal repair.

        Fibre glass repair.

        Wooden repair.

        Fabric repair.

        Recover fabric control surface.

        Treat corrosion.

        Apply protective treatment.


52    Doors

        Rig/adjust locking mechanism.

        Adjust air stair system.

        Check operation of emergency exits.

        Test door warning system.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


56    Windows

        Replace windshield.

        Replace window.

        Repair transparency.


57    Wings

        Skin repair.

        Recover fabric wing.

        Replace tip.

        Replace rib.

        Check incidence/rig.


61    Propeller

        Assemble prop after transportation.

        Replace propeller.

        Replace governor.

        Adjust governor.

        Perform static functional checks.

        Check operation during ground run.

        Check track.

        Check setting of micro switches.

        Dress out blade damage.

        Dynamically balance prop.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


62    Main Rotors

        Install rotor assembly.

        Replace blades.

        Replace damper assembly.

        Check track.

        Check static balance.

        Check dynamic balance.



63    Rotor Drive

        Replace mast.

        Replace drive coupling.

        Replace clutch/freewheel unit

        Replace drive belt.

        Install main gearbox.

        Overhaul main gearbox.

        Check gearbox chip detectors.


64    Tail Rotors

        Install rotor assembly.

        Replace blades.



65    Tail Rotor Drive

        Replace bevel gearbox.

        Replace universal joints.

        Overhaul bevel gearbox.

        Install drive assembly.

        Check chip detectors.


67    Rotorcraft flight controls

        Install swash plate.

        Install mixing box.

        Adjust pitch links.

        Rig collective system.

        Rig cyclic system.

        Rig anti-torque system.

        Check controls for assembly and locking.

        Check controls for operation and sense.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


71    Power Plant

        Build up ECU.

        Replace engine.

        Repair cooling baffles.

        Repair cowling.

        Adjust cowl flaps.

        Repair faulty wiring.



72    Piston Engines

        Remove/install reduction gear.

        Check crankshaft run-out.

        Check tappet clearance.

        Check compression.

        Extract broken stud.

        Install helicoil.

        Perform ground run.

        Establish/check reference RPM.


72    Turbine Engines

        Replace module.

        Hot section inspection.

        Engine ground run.

        Establish reference power.

        Trend monitoring/gas path analysis.



73    Fuel and control, piston

        Replace engine driven pump.

        Adjust AMC.

        Adjust ABC.

        Install carburettor/injector.

        Adjust carburettor/injector.

        Clean injector nozzles.

        Replace primer line.

        Check carburettor float setting.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


73    Fuel and control, turbine

        Replace FCU.

        Replace engine driven pump.

        Clean/test fuel nozzles.

        Clean/replace filters.

        Adjust FCU.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


74    Ignition systems, piston

        Change magneto.

        Change ignition vibrator.

        Change plugs.

        Test plugs.

        Check H.T. leads.

        Install new leads.

        Check timing.

        Check system bonding.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


74    Ignition systems, turbine

        Check glow plugs/igniters.

        Check H.T. leads.

        Check ignition unit.

        Replace ignition unit.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


76    Engine Controls

        Rig thrust lever.

        Rig RPM control.

        Rig mixture HP cock lever.

        Rig power lever.

        Check control sync (multi-eng).

        Check controls for correct assembly and locking.

        Check controls for range and sense of operation.

        Adjust pedestal micro-switches.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


77    Engine Indicating

        Replace engine instruments(s).

        Replace oil temperature bulb.

        Replace thermocouples.

        Check calibration.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


78    Exhaust, piston

        Replace exhaust gasket.

        Inspect welded repair.

        Pressure check cabin heater muff.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


78    Exhaust, turbine

        Change jet pipe.

        Change shroud assembly.

        Install trimmers.


79    Oil

        Change oil.

        Check filter(s).

        Adjust pressure relief valve.

        Replace oil tank.

        Replace oil pump.

        Replace oil cooler.

        Replace firewall shut off valve.

        Perform oil dilution.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


80    Starting

        Replace starter.

        Replace start relay.

        Replace start control valve.

        Check cranking speed.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


81    Turbines, piston engines

        Replace PRT.

        Replace turbo-blower.

        Replace heat shields.

        Replace waste gate.

        Adjust density controller.


82    Engine water injection

        Replace water/methanol pump.

        Flow check water/methanol system.

        Adjust water/meth. control unit.

        Check fluid for quality.

        Troubleshoot faulty system.


83    Accessory gear boxes

        Replace gearbox.

        Replace drive shaft.

        Check chip detector.





APPENDIX 4 - Acceptable Practical Training Record (PTR) format                             

Documenting practical experience

Practical experience for the issue of an AME Licence, Categories and Ratings should be documented in a suitable PTR.

The format of any acceptable PTR should have the following features:

  • a section that provide an overview of experience /employment in the aviation industry, detailing relevant qualifications, training and courses
  • an experience record section that lists specific tasks completed, and:
  • details the dates and the specific aircraft or component worked on, and
  • is countersigned by a supervising LAME

Example of experience record page

Below is an example of the typical format that should be used in the experience record section to document practical experience.

Experience should be recorded in a separate section for the appropriate rating group or specific type rating of the relevant category section.

There should be sufficient detail to describe the task to allow an assessor to see that a range of various maintenance tasks have been completed for the unit standard (U.S.), category, or rating being applied for.

In the ‘Details of maintenance task’ column indicate one of the following actions has been carried out:

(P) - Personally performed the task

(A) - Taken an active interest in

(T) - Received instruction or on the job training


Section 3.1 - Practical Experience Record - Aeroplane Category                               Rating

page    of




U.S. No.

A/C Reg. and

Job No.

A/C Type or Component

Details of Maintenance Task


Validating Eng. No. &Initials















































APPENDIX 5 - AMEL Examination Syllabus Structure


Each syllabus subject is described in a separate AC as detailed in Table 1, on page 11. Performance verbs used in the basic examination syllabuses are as follows:


Knowledge Level







To employ a formula, theorem or principle.





To fix the size, quantity, amount, value or quality





To determine or ascertain mathematical methods.





To place in a class or division.





To establish similarities or dissimilarities.





To build an entity by fitting parts together





To change into others of a different kind.





To interpret in plain language.





To state the exact meaning or give the limits.





To trace from a source or deduce





To give a description or state the characteristics.





To deal with things item by item.





To resolve or establish precisely





To identify the cause of a mechanical fault





To identify the difference between two items.





To make the difference recognisable.





To give an approximate judgement





To critically interpret and appraise in various contexts





To make known in detail.





To derive from.





To draw a graph as representing a given function.





To establish individuality of an item.





To give specific examples of a general case.





To put in plain words.





To record a number of connected items.





To join two or more things so they correspond.





To use the word by which an item is known.





To draw or describe the essential parts only.





To carry out a task.





To mark or connect points on a graph.





To produce again, to produce copies or representations.





To approximate to a specified degree of accuracy.





To choose for suitability from a list





To demonstrate.





To make easier to do or understand.





To determine the answer to a problem.





To provide details of design, materials or conditions





To express in words or number.





To follow the course, development, history of.





Each syllabus is set out by topics (except for subject 18), then every main topic in each syllabus is divided into sub-topics then into sub-sub-topics and, where applicable, paragraphs. The three-digit sub-sub-topic numbers shown in the left-hand column of the syllabus table are used in the ‘knowledge deficiency reports’ (KDRs) to provide feedback on individual examinations.

Objective description

The middle column of each syllabus table objectively describes each sub-sub-topic by plainly stating its subject matter and the type of performance or activity required. The objectives are intended to be simple, unambiguous, and clearly focussed, outcomes to aid learning.

Knowledge levels

The right-hand column of the syllabus table specifies the knowledge level for the sub-topic headings. The levels indicate the depth of knowledge required and are defined as follows:

LEVEL 1:          A familiarisation with the principal elements of the subject.

LEVEL 2:          A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.

                        The applicant should have the ability to apply their knowledge.

LEVEL 3:          A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.

                        The applicant should have the capacity to combine and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a logical and comprehensive manner.

Note that the knowledge levels indicate the depth of knowledge required NOT its safety importance.















Appendix 6 - Guidance Material for CAR 66.19 Medical Requirements

“A holder of a licence or certificate issued under the Act and this Part must not exercise the privileges of that licence or certificate while that person has a known medical condition, that creates a risk of harm to that person or to any other person resulting from the holder’s exercising of privileges under this Part.”

General - An AMEL, or holder of a Certificate of MA, or Certificate of IA issued under CAR Part 66 (aviation documents) allows the holder to exercise certain privileges relating to maintenance and modification activities.

It is the responsibility of the aviation document holder to ensure that they are fit to exercise the privileges of these documents. They should not report for duty or certify any maintenance work if they are medically unfit or impaired due to factors such as fatigue to operate safely.

Individuals also have responsibility under the Health and Safety at Work Act 2015(external link) (HSWA), whether as an officer or worker, conducting business as a person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU), refer to sections 36, 44 and 45 of the HSWA.

Please also refer to the Health and Safety at Work (General Risk and Workplace Management) Regulations 2016(external link), specifically Part 1 General duties, and Part 3 Duties relating to exposure monitoring and health monitoring

In most professions there is a duty of care by the individual to assess their own fitness to carry out their professional duties. Although CAA doesn’t prescribe medical standards and certification for LAMEs, CAA encourages them to take a professional attitude towards their physical and mental health. Cases of subtle physical or mental illness may not always be apparent to the individual themselves, but as engineers often work as a member of a team any sub-standard performance or unusual behaviour should be quickly noticed by colleagues or supervisors, as well as family members and friends, and hopefully they should discuss with the individual so that appropriate support, medical and counselling action can be taken. A decrease in mental fitness in many cases may be related to stress from within the working environment or to the personal circumstances of the individual.

Instances of aggressive behaviour, vagueness and slippage of personal standards (cleanliness, appearance etc.) may be indicative of more serious mental health issues. Such issues may bring into question the ability of the individual to be trusted or to maintain the necessary levels of concentration to take appropriate decisions on airworthiness matters.

Alcohol - Alcohol has similar effects to tranquillisers and sleeping tablets and may remain circulating in the blood for a considerable time. It should be kept in mind that a person may not be fit to go on duty even after eight hours after drinking large amounts of alcohol. Alcohol related impairment on returning to duty may relate to a still elevated blood alcohol level or hangover effects. Individuals should therefore anticipate such effects upon their next duty period. Special note should be taken of the fact that combinations of alcohol and sleeping tablets, or antihistamines, can form a highly dangerous or even lethal combination.

If you believe you are impaired by your use of alcohol other drugs do not report for work.

If you are concerned that you may have a problem with alcohol it is strongly recommended that you seek help from your GP, an alcohol counsellor, peer support group e.g. AA, or a workplace alcohol and other drugs programme if your employer has one.

Anaesthetics - It should be remembered that even small doses of anaesthetics used for local surgery or dental work may affect your cognitive ability and a period of rest should be taken before returning to duty. This period will vary depending upon individual circumstances but may even extend to 24 or 48 hours. Any doubts should be resolved by seeking appropriate medical advice.

Drugs – The use of illicit or non-prescribed drugs are totally unacceptable where aircraft maintenance safety is concerned.

If you are concerned that you may have a problem with drugs, illegal or prescribed, it is strongly recommended that you seek help from your GP, a drug counsellor, peer support group e.g. AA/NA, or a workplace alcohol and other drugs programme if your employer has one.

Eyesight - A reasonable standard of eyesight is needed for any aircraft engineer to perform their duties to an acceptable degree. Many maintenance tasks require a combination of both distance and near vision. Such consideration must be made where there is a need for the close visual inspection of structures or work related to small or miniature components. The use of glasses or contact lenses to correct any vision problems is perfectly acceptable and indeed they must be worn as prescribed. Frequent checks should be made to ensure the continued adequacy of any glasses or contact lenses. In addition, colour discrimination may be necessary for an individual to drive in areas where aircraft manoeuvre or where colour coding is used, e.g. in aircraft wiring. Organisations should identify any specific eyesight requirement and put in place suitable procedures to address these issues.

Fatigue - Tiredness and fatigue can adversely affect performance. Excessive hours of duty and shift work, particularly with multiple shift periods and/or additional overtime, can lead to fatigue. Organisations and individuals should be fully aware of the dangers of impaired performance due to fatigue and of their corporate and personal responsibilities. Organisations should consider if a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is appropriate.

Hearing - The ability to hear an average conversational voice in a quiet room at 2 metres from the examiner is recommended as a routine test. Failure of this test would require an audiogram to be carried out to provide an objective assessment. If necessary, a hearing aid may be worn but consideration should be given to the practicalities of wearing the aid during routine tasks demanded of the individual.

Medication - Any form of medication, whether prescribed by a doctor or purchased over the counter and particularly if being taken for the first time, may have consequences in the aviation maintenance environment unless the basic questions can be answered satisfactorily by the individual:

  1. How does the condition I am taking medication for affect my fitness for work?
  2. Must I take medicines at all? If so:
    1. Have I given this medication a personal trial for at least 24 hours before going on duty, to ensure that it will not have adverse effects on my ability to work and make sound decisions?
    2. Do I really feel fit for work?

Confirming the absence of adverse effects may need expert advice. GPs and pharmacists will be able to assist in this matter.

Stress - Everyone is subject to various stresses in their life and work. Stress can often be stimulating and beneficial, but prolonged exposure to chronic stress (high levels or differing stress factors) can produce strain and cause performance to suffer allowing mistakes to occur. Stress factors can be varied, physical – e.g. heat, cold, humidity, noise, vibration; they can be due to ill-health or worries about possible ill-health; from problems outside the workplace – e.g. bereavements, domestic upsets, financial or legal difficulties.

A stress-related problem can manifest itself by signs of irritability, forgetfulness, sickness absence, mistakes, or alcohol or drug abuse. Organisations have a duty to identify work designs and practices that minimise work related stresses. Organisations should have systems in place (e.g. Policies, EAP/ good leadership) to support individuals who may be suffering from stress and to minimise workplace stresses. Individual cases can be helped by sympathetic and skilful leadership, and counselling which allows a return to effective work and maintenance duties.

Note: Fatigue and Stress are two of the “Dirty Dozen(external link)” - This concept was originated by Gordon Dupont ( link)) and according to the FAA they are implicated in about 80% of maintenance mistakes.